The purpose of the study was to determine prevalence rates of the female athlete triad (Triad), differences by sport category (aesthetic, endurance, and team/anaerobic), and the relationship between each of the components of the Triad. Female athletes (N= 451) from three Division I universities with an average age of 20 years completed the Menstrual History Questionnaire, Injury Assessment Questionnaire, and the Questionnaire for Eating Disorder Diagnoses (Q-EDD; Mintz, O’Halloran, Mulholland, & Schneider, 1997). Almost 7% of female athletes reported clinical eating disorders, and 19.2% reported subclinical disordered eating. Disordered eating was prevalent in all three sport categories with no significant differences between groups. Muscle injuries were more prevalent in team/anaerobic sports (77.4%) than the aesthetic (68.1%) and endurance groups (58.1%). Furthermore, those athletes with menstrual dysfunction more frequently reported clinical eating disorders (1.4%) and sustained more skeletal injuries (51%) during their athletic career than athletes with regular menstrual function. Clinical implications and further research directions are addressed.
Justine J. Reel, Sonya SooHoo, Holly Doetsch, Jennifer E. Carter and Trent A. Petrie
Katie N. Brown, Heidi J. Wengreen, Katherine A. Beals and Edward M. Heath
This quasi-experimental study aimed to assess risk for the female athlete triad (Triad) and pilot a peer-led Triad educational intervention. Twenty-nine female high school track and field athletes (N = 29) at one high school in the western United States consented to participate. Participants were weighed and measured, and completed pre- and postsurveys that included Triad risk factor questions and 10 questions assessing Triad knowledge. 54% of athletes reported current menstrual irregularity; 7% reported a history of stress fractures. Significant increases in Triad knowledge were observed pre- to postintervention (4.7 ± 2.6 to 7.7 ± 1.78 out of 10; p < .0001). Triad education was generally accepted and enjoyed by participants; however, 86% preferred that a coach or other adult provide education instead of a peer.
Aurelia Nattiv, Rosemary Agostini, Kimberly K. Yeager and Barbara Drinkwater
Laurie Stickler, Trisha Armstrong, Alyssa Polso and Melissa Smith
Low energy availability has been identified through research as the cornerstone of the female athlete triad, yet reasons for nutritional choices among female collegiate athletes are poorly understood.
To explore the perspectives of female collegiate cross country runners on eating behaviors and attitudes toward health.
Phenomenologic qualitative study with individual, semistructured interviews.
Ten collegiate female cross country runners, ages 18–22, participated in the study. All interviews were audiotaped then transcribed. Three researchers independently coded data and developed themes and subthemes before meeting and negotiating findings.
The following four themes were identified: health behaviors, nutritional knowledge, internal and external factors, and health attitudes.
This study contributes to understanding “the why” behind health behaviors of female collegiate cross country runners. This developmental understanding may assist in interpreting the behavioral causes of low energy availability; thus, both management and prevention of the triad may be aided by this information.
Claire-Marie Roberts and Jacky Forsyth
, 2018 ; Keay, 2018 ), and that instances of heavy menstrual bleeding (resulting in iron deficiency) should not be overlooked ( Bruinvels, 2018 ). Yet, Relative Energy Deficiency in Sport (RED-S), otherwise known as the Female Athlete Triad, can impair physiological function such as menstrual function
Jenny H. Conviser, Amanda Schlitzer Tierney and Riley Nickols
-question screening tool developed by the Female Athlete Triad Coalition (see Figure 4 ) to identify risk of disordered eating, menstrual dysfunction, and low bone mineral density (see Figure 5 ) ( De Souza et al., 2014 ). Figure 4 —Recommended Questions for the Female Athlete Triad Coalition, 2014
in our understanding of bone health and the female athlete over the last three decades, from the identification of the Female Athlete Triad and the negative effects of relative energy deficit, to what this means for injury risk and long-term health, and to the current knowledge base on management and
Laura S. Kox, P. Paul F.M. Kuijer, Dagmar A.J. Thijssen, Gino M.M.J. Kerkhoffs, Rick R. van Rijn, Monique H.W. Frings-Dresen and Mario Maas
female athlete triad in elite lightweight rowers. BMJ Open . 2014 ; 4 ( 2 ): e004369 . doi:10.1136/bmjopen-2013-004369 24523427 10.1136/bmjopen-2013-004369 37. Ducher G , Courteix D , Meme S , Magni C , Viala JF , Benhamou CL . Bone geometry in response to long-term tennis playing
Julien Louis, Fabrice Vercruyssen, Olivier Dupuy and Thierry Bernard
. Neurobiology of Aging, 9 ( 1 ), 9 – 16 . PubMed ID: 2898107 10.1016/S0197-4580(88)80004-6 Mountjoy , M. , Sundgot-Borgen , J. , Burke , L. , Carter , S. , Constantini , N. , Lebrun , C. , . . . Ljungqvist , A. ( 2014 ). The IOC consensus statement: Beyond the female athlete triad
Pooja Somasundaram and Alexandra M. Burgess
disordered eating symptomology ( Coelho, Soares, & Ribeiro, 2010 ). Female Athlete Triad, which includes disordered eating, amenorrhea, and osteoporosis, can lead to significant long term health consequences such as hypertension, low bone mineral density, electrocardiographic abnormalities, and sometimes