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Justine J. Reel, Sonya SooHoo, Holly Doetsch, Jennifer E. Carter and Trent A. Petrie

The purpose of the study was to determine prevalence rates of the female athlete triad (Triad), differences by sport category (aesthetic, endurance, and team/anaerobic), and the relationship between each of the components of the Triad. Female athletes (N= 451) from three Division I universities with an average age of 20 years completed the Menstrual History Questionnaire, Injury Assessment Questionnaire, and the Questionnaire for Eating Disorder Diagnoses (Q-EDD; Mintz, O’Halloran, Mulholland, & Schneider, 1997). Almost 7% of female athletes reported clinical eating disorders, and 19.2% reported subclinical disordered eating. Disordered eating was prevalent in all three sport categories with no significant differences between groups. Muscle injuries were more prevalent in team/anaerobic sports (77.4%) than the aesthetic (68.1%) and endurance groups (58.1%). Furthermore, those athletes with menstrual dysfunction more frequently reported clinical eating disorders (1.4%) and sustained more skeletal injuries (51%) during their athletic career than athletes with regular menstrual function. Clinical implications and further research directions are addressed.

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Jenny H. Conviser, Amanda Schlitzer Tierney and Riley Nickols

-question screening tool developed by the Female Athlete Triad Coalition (see Figure  4 ) to identify risk of disordered eating, menstrual dysfunction, and low bone mineral density (see Figure  5 ) ( De Souza et al., 2014 ). Figure 4 —Recommended Questions for the Female Athlete Triad Coalition, 2014

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Pooja Somasundaram and Alexandra M. Burgess

disordered eating symptomology ( Coelho, Soares, & Ribeiro, 2010 ). Female Athlete Triad, which includes disordered eating, amenorrhea, and osteoporosis, can lead to significant long term health consequences such as hypertension, low bone mineral density, electrocardiographic abnormalities, and sometimes

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Jenny H. Conviser, Amanda Schlitzer Tierney and Riley Nickols

. , Joey , E. , Misra , M. , Williams , N. , Mallinson , R.J. , … Matheson , G. ( 2014 ). Female athlete triad coalition consensus statement on treatment and return to play of female athlete triad: 1st International Conference held in San Francisco, California, May 2012 and 2nd International

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Laura K. Fewell, Riley Nickols, Amanda Schlitzer Tierney and Cheri A. Levinson

. , Misra , M. , Williams , N. , Mallinson , R.J. , . . . Expert Panel . ( 2014 ). Female athlete triad coalition consensus statement on treatment and return to play of the female athlete triad: 1st International Conference held in San Francisco, California, May 2012 and 2nd International Conference

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Taylor K. Wise

: Definitions of Relative Energy Deficiency in Sport and Female Athlete Triad d. Pattern 4 : Explanation of Relative Energy Deficiency: energy availability, energy intake, exercise energy expenditure, and fat free mass 9. Theme I: Goals of Policy a. Pattern 1 : Provide a comprehensive protocol for prevention

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Rachael E. Flatt and Craig Barr Taylor

Energy Deficiency in Sports (RED-S; formerly known as the Female Athlete Triad), a disorder common to many athletes. The symptoms of this disorder overlap with AN and may reflect an eating disorder ( Mountjoy et al., 2014 ). A screening tool for RED-S is available, but has not yet been validated

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Dana K. Voelker and Justine J. Reel

. , Nattiv , A. , & Fredericson , M. ( 2016 ). Parallels with the female athlete triad in male athletes . Sports Medicine, 46 ( 2 ), 171 – 182 . PubMed ID: 26497148 doi:10.1007/s40279-015-0411-y 10.1007/s40279-015-0411-y Voelker , D.K. , Gould , D. , & Reel , J.J. ( 2014 ). Prevalence and

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Uta Kraus, Sophie Clara Holtmann and Tanja Legenbauer

Medicine position stand. The female athlete triad . Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise, 39 , 1867 – 1882 . PubMed ID: 17909417 doi:10.1249/mss.0b013e318149f111 Paul , T. , & Thiel , A. ( 2005 ). Eating disorder inventory-2: EDI-2; Manual (German Version). Göttingen, Germany : Hogrefe

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Justine J. Reel, Leslie Podlog, Lindsey Hamilton, Lindsey Greviskes, Dana K. Voelker and Cara Gray

15327752JPA7601_6 10.1207/S15327752JPA7601_6 Mountjoy , M. , Sundgot-Borgen , J. , Burke , L. , Carter , S. , Constantini , N. , Lebrun , C. , … Ljungqvist , A. ( 2014 ). The IOC consensus statement: Beyond the female athlete triad-relative energy deficiency in sport (RED-S) . British