This study sought to describe the degree of success of a basic tenet of liberal feminism in providing equal opportunity as defined by female representation in the NCAA. The study showed how the NCAA is reflective of an association that is an instrument of domination. The purpose of the study was to determine the number of women holding leadership positions at the campus level in NCAA labeled functions. These data were compared with similar 1987-88 data. In addition, male and female representatives at the national level on committees and councils were compared to similar data collected in 1987-88. A gender comparison was made with the 1992-93 data involving NCAA national committees. The data revealed that there were significantly more males than females on NCAA national committees in 1992-93. The results of χ2 tests between years and female representation revealed no significant increase in female representation between 1987 and 1993; however, there was an increase in female representation beyond the mandated percentage required by NCAA bylaws.
Dorothy J. Lovett and Carla D. Lowry
Holly Thorpe and Megan Chawansky
. ( 2011 ). Corporatising sport, gender and development: Postcolonial IR feminisms, transnational private governance and global corporate social engagement . Third World Quarterly, 32 ( 3 ), 531 – 549 . doi:10.1080/01436597.2011.573944 10.1080/01436597.2011.573944 Hayhurst , L. ( 2014 ). The ‘Girl
Sarah Zipp, Tavis Smith and Simon Darnell
), 284 – 305 . doi:10.1177/0193723511416986 10.1177/0193723511416986 Hayhurst , L.M.C. ( 2011 ). Corporatising sport, gender and development: Postcolonial IR feminisms, transnational private governance and global corporate social engagement . Third World Quarterly, 32 ( 3 ), 531 – 549 . doi:10
Jennifer E. McGarry
’s Practice Theme Committee . Available at http://aom.!org/uploadedFiles/About_AOM/StrategicPlan/AOMScholarlyImpactReport.pdf . Harding , S.G. ( 1986 ). The science question in feminism . Ithaca, NY : Cornell University Press . Hill , J. ( 2019 ). Jamele Hill a disrupter . Retrieved from https
Barbara Barnett and Marie C. Hardin
Since Title IX was enacted in 1972, women’s advocates have considered how the law has affected female participation in sports, and critics have suggested that the law has unfairly denied opportunities to men. Studies have examined how journalists have covered Title IX and its consequences, yet few have looked at how advocacy groups have sought to influence coverage of the law. This textual analysis examines press statements published by the Women’s Sports Foundation from 2004 through 2009 and concludes that the organization used frames of community and transcendence in discussing women’s athletic participation. The foundation characterized community as essential to the support of women’s participation in sports and suggested that participation and achievement in sports were symbolic of women’s accomplishments in the larger society. The foundation also focused on fairness and equality as rationales for equitable distribution of resources and opportunities. Title IX was rarely mentioned in press statements.
Dunja Antunovic and Marie Hardin
The emergence of social media has provided a space for discourse and activism about sports that traditional media outlets tend to ignore. Using a feminist theoretical lens, a textual analysis of selected blogs on the Women Talk Sports blog network was conducted to determine how fandom and advocacy for women’s sports were expressed in blog posts. The analysis indicated that bloggers enhance the visibility of women’s sports, but their engagement with social issues varies. Some bloggers may reproduce hegemonic norms around sports and gendered sporting bodies, while others may offer a more critical, decidedly feminist view and challenge dominant ideologies. While the blogosphere, and particularly networks such as Women Talk Sports, can serve as a venue for activism around women’s sports and the representation of athletic bodies, its potential to do so may be unmet without a more critical perspective by participants.
Marie Hardin, Dunja Antunovic, Steve Bien-Aimé and Ruobing Li
Sport-talk radio has been recognized, along with other forms of sports media, as a masculine space where women’s value as athletes and fans is diminished. Little is known, however, about the gendered dynamics of sport-talk-radio production. This study used a survey of programming directors from across the United States to explore issues around the employment of women and coverage of women’s sport by local stations. Results suggest that many stations do not employ any women, although more than half do. Still, leadership positions belong primarily to men. Programming directors see little value in women’s sport for their listeners and make decisions that reinforce their vision of an audience that also sees little value in women’s sport. Using a feminist lens, the authors speculate on the impact that women in positions of power could have on programming if their representation moved beyond token status, while acknowledging the realities of the sport-media workplace.
Emma Kavanagh, Chelsea Litchfield and Jaquelyn Osborne
understand online gender-based violence targeted at these female athletes in social media spaces adopting a third-wave-feminism and intersectional perspective. The study highlights the presence of vitriol targeted at women athletes surrounding their job role and performance. The online social commentary
Elizabeth A. Taylor, Allison B. Smith, Cheryl R. Rode and Robin Hardin
.J. ( 1998 ). Doing power: The confluence of gender, race, and class in contrapower sexual harassment . Gender & Society, 12 ( 1 ), 40 – 60 . doi:10.1177/089124398012001003 10.1177/089124398012001003 Roth , A. , & Basow , S.A. ( 2004 ). Femininity, sports, and feminism: Developing a theory of
Erin Morris, Ryan Vooris and Tara Q. Mahoney
-oriented perspective . Sport Management Education Journal, 7, 13 – 24 . doi:10.1123/smej.7.1.13 10.1123/smej.7.1.13 Harding , S. ( 1987 ). Feminism & methodology . Bloomington, IL : Indiana University Press . Harris , F.K. , Grappendorf , H. , Aicher , T. , & Veraldo , C. ( 2015 ). “Discrimination