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David Giles, Joel B. Chidley, Nicola Taylor, Ollie Torr, Josh Hadley, Tom Randall and Simon Fryer

Rock climbing requires repeated isometric contractions of the finger flexors, which are responsible for flexion of the metacarpophalangeal and interphalangeal joints. 1 These contractions cause regular periods of ischemia in the forearms; the extent of this ischemia and the subsequent recovery

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Robert MacKenzie, Linda Monaghan, Robert A. Masson, Alice K. Werner, Tansinee S. Caprez, Lynsey Johnston and Ole J. Kemi

. Accordingly, changes to those affect maximal climbing performance. Previous studies have identified many of those characteristics, such as upper-body and shoulder strength 6 – 8 including explosive power, 5 , 6 , 9 forearm grip and finger strength, 5 , 10 – 13 upper-body endurance capacity 10 , 14 and

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Barry S. Mason, Viola C. Altmann and Victoria L. Goosey-Tolfrey

–3) around the shoulders, elbows, and wrists and no active finger function were categorized as “poor arm function” (PAF; arm score ≤ 1.5; n = 12). Those with no muscle weakness (MMT 4–5) around the shoulders, elbows, and wrists, but with minimal to no active finger function were categorized as “moderate arm

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Jorge Arede, António Paulo Ferreira, Oliver Gonzalo-Skok and Nuno Leite

precision) were recorded for estimation of maturity status. Second digit and fourth digit ratio (2D:4D) were determined after measurements of the palmar surface of the fingers using steel vernier calipers (measuring to 0.05 mm), from a midpoint on the crease proximal to the palm to the tip of the finger

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Weiyun Chen, Inez Rovegno, John Todorovich and Matt Babiarz

The purpose of this study was to describe third grade children’s movement responses to dribbling tasks taught by four accomplished teachers and how children’s dribbling varied with changes in task constraints. Children in four intact classes were videotaped during three dribbling lessons as part of their physical education program. Videotapes were analyzed to provide descriptions of children’s movement responses. Typically, when children dribbled while walking or jogging they controlled the ball, pushed with finger pads, and looked at the ball. When dribbling tasks were more difficult, in general, there was less ball control and more slapping with palms (less mature patterns) while at the same time more instances of children lifting their heads to look up (a more mature pattern). Task constraints had differential impacts on different dribbling elements. One implication is that teachers need to consider this differential impact in designing practice conditions and in selecting assessment tasks.

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L.R. McNaughton, R.J. Lovell, J. Siegler, A.W. Midgley, L. Moore and D.J. Bentley


The purpose of this work was to determine the effects of caffeine on high intensity time trial (TT) cycling performance in well-trained subjects.


Six male cyclists with the following physical characteristics (mean ± SD) age 30.7 ± 12, height 179.3 ± 7.5 cm, mass 70.0 ± 7.5 kg, VO2max 65.0 ± 6.3 mL·kg−1·min−1 undertook three 1-h TT performances, control (C), placebo (P) and caffeine (CAF), on a Velotron cycle ergometer conducted in a double-blind, random fashion. Subjects rested for 60 min and were then given CAF or P in a dose of 6 mg·kg−1 body mass and then commenced exercise after another 60 min of rest. Before ingestion, 60 min postingestion, and at the end of the TT, finger-prick blood samples were analyzed for lactate.


The cyclists rode significantly further in the CAF trial (28.0 ± 1.3 km) than they did in the C (26.3 ± 1.5 km, P < .01) or P (26.4 ± 1.5 km, P < .02) trials. No differences were seen in heart rate data throughout the TT (P > .05). Blood lactate levels were significantly higher at the end of the trials than either at rest or postingestion (P < .0001), but there were no differences between the three trial groups.


On the basis of the data, we concluded that performance was improved with the use of a caffeine supplement.

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Twan ten Haaf, Selma van Staveren, Danilo Iannetta, Bart Roelands, Romain Meeusen, Maria F. Piacentini, Carl Foster, Leo Koenderman, Hein A.M. Daanen and Jos J. de Koning

computerized finger-precuing task, 14 a test modified from the test as described by Miller 15 (Figure  2 ). Each task started with the warning sign displayed on a computer screen: 4 plus signs on a row (+ + + +), which indicated the 4 possible target locations on the keyboard (left middle finger, left index

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with frostbite, Raynaud’s Syndrome, cold immersion injuries or vibration white finger and 2) where their hands get cold during winter rescues. Respondents indicated in 33 anatomical regions on images of each hand where, including the anterior and posterior sides of all fingers, the thumb and the hand

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Jan Kodejška, Jiří Baláš and Nick Draper

familiarization visit, each participant’s maximal voluntary contraction of the dominant finger flexors (self-determined) was assessed. Following this, participants completed the protocol, as shown in Figure  1 , on each of 3 subsequent visits, with 3 to 6 days between visits. The warm-up consisted of 5-minute

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Daniel J. Plews, Ben Scott, Marco Altini, Matt Wood, Andrew E. Kilding and Paul B. Laursen

use the PPG smartphone application before they completed 5 minutes of guided learning time where they could become familiar with how to use the app, including how to apply appropriate finger pressure as well as use an entrained breathing setting. Data Acquisition and Processing Camera and heart rate