Alienation from physical education causes students to withdraw emotionally and physically from participation in classes. In addition, belief in one’s competence in physical activity and physical fitness appears to influence both participation in physical activity and fitness levels. The purpose of this study was to determine the relationships between physical factors (fitness performance and strength measures), psychological factors (alienation from physical education and two types of perceived physical competence), gender, and age in middle school children. Participants in this study were 242 children (138 girls, 104 boys) enrolled in 6th-, 7th-, and 8th-grade physical education classes. Data were collected on alienation from physical education; perceived competence toward physical fitness and toward physical activity; and grip strength, standing long jump, mile run, percent body fat, and body mass index. Using factor scores, a two-step regression procedure revealed that (a) gender and perceived fitness competence were significant predictors (p < .05) of fitness, explaining 41% of the variance, and (b) age, alienation, and perceived physical activity competence were significant predictors of strength, explaining 25% of the variance. Independent of gender and age, the psychological variables of perceived physical competence toward fitness and alienation are related to physical performance. Highly alienated youth were less fit, and children with lower perceptions of physical competence were less fit.
Nancy A. Burkhalter and Janice C. Wendt
Andrea T. White, C. Steven Fehlauer, Rita Hanover, Stephen C. Johnson, and Robert E. Dustman
Older individuals arc more likely than younger adults to exhibit symptoms of exercise intolerance at high work rates. The risks of maximal exercise in older adults increase proportionally as the number of health difficulties increase. In this study, the effects of health status, age, and gender on older adults’ ability to attain V̇O2max are examined. Sedentary volunteers (60 women, 45 men), mean age 67 ± 5 years (range 57-78 years), participated in graded maximal exercise tests on a combined arm and leg cycle ergometer. Subjects were classified into three groups based on test termination reason: attainment of V̇O2max (MAX), symptom-limited (SX), or EKG-limited (EKG). Sixty percent of men and 40% of women were classified as MAX, while 48% of women and 27% of men were characterized as SX. Thirteen percent of men and 12% of women had EKG-limited exercise tests. Those in the EKG group reported significantly more diagnoses than subjects in the MAX group (2.7 vs. 1.4. p < .05). The number of medications reported and age of the subjects did not differ across test termination categories.
Kaitlyn P. Roland, Jennifer M. Jakobi, and Gareth R. Jones
Interest in yoga is growing, especially among older adults. This review critically summarizes the current literature to investigate whether physical fitness and function benefits are engendered through the practice of yoga in older adults. A comprehensive search yielded 507 studies; 10 studies with 544 participants (69.6 ± 6.3 yr, 71% female) were included. Large variability in yoga styles and measurement outcomes make it challenging to interpret results across studies. Studies reported moderate improvements for gait (ES = 0.54, 0.80), balance (ES = 0.25–1.61), upper/lower body flexibility (ES = 0.25, 0.70), lower body strength (ES = 0.51), and weight loss (ES = 0.73, 0.99). Yoga may engender improvements in some components of fitness in older adults. However, more evidence is needed to determine its effectiveness as an alternative exercise to promote fitness in older adults. Further investigation into yoga as an exercise activity for older adults is warranted.
Herbert W. Marsh
Self-concepts (self-perceptions) of physical fitness and academic achievement were related to 14 field and laboratory indicators of physical fitness and to academic achievement for a large, national representative sample of Australian boys and girls aged 9 to 15 (N = 6,283). Correlations between self-concepts and the corresponding external criteria increased steadily with age in both the physical and academic domains. Consistent with predictions from frame-of-reference models, relations were stronger after controlling for gender and age, suggesting that self-concepts are formed relative to other students of a similar age and gender. Fitness self-concept was most strongly related to some individual measures (e.g., 1.6K run, 50M dash, push-ups, skin fold thickness, VO2max, long jump, and body girth scores) and some components of fitness (e.g., cardiovascular endurance, power, dynamic strength, and body composition) than others. Consistent with multidimensional perspectives of physical fitness, indicators from a variety of fitness domains contributed to fitness self-concepts.
Georges Jabbour, Melanie Henderson, Angelo Tremblay, and Marie Eve Mathieu
Moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) improves aerobic fitness in children, which is usually assessed by maximal oxygen consumption. However, other indices of aerobic fitness have been understudied.
To compare net oxygen (VO2net), net energy consumption (Enet), net mechanical efficiency (MEnet), and lipid oxidation rate in active and inactive children across body weight statuses.
The sample included normal-weight, overweight, and obese children of whom 44 are active (≥30 min of MVPA/d) and 41 are inactive (<30 min of MVPA/d). VO2net, Enet, MEnet and lipid oxidation rate were determined during an incremental maximal cycling test.
Active obese participants had significantly lower values of VO2net and Enet and higher MEnet than inactive obese participants at all load stages. In addition, active obese participants showed a significantly higher lipid oxidation rate compared with inactive obese and active overweight and normal-weight participants. VO2net, Enet, and MEnet were similar across active children, regardless of body weight status.
Thirty minutes or more of MVPA per day is associated with a potentiation of aerobic fitness indicators in obese prepubertal children. Moreover, the indices of aerobic fitness of inactive obese children are significantly different from those of active obese and nonobese ones.
Paweł Zembura, Agata Korcz, Elżbieta Cieśla, Aleksandra Gołdys, and Hanna Nałȩcz
been established in reference to each indicator based on the amount and quality of the available data. All data sources were published within the last 5 years (since 2013), with the exception of the Physical Fitness indicator. The most informative sources of data were two cross-national surveys
Karla I. Galaviz, Gabriela Argumedo Garcia, Alejandro Gaytán-González, Inés González-Casanova, Martín Francisco González Villalobos, Alejandra Jáuregui, Edtna Jáuregui Ulloa, Catalina Medina, Yoali Selene Pacheco Miranda, Marcela Pérez Rodríguez, Eugen Resendiz, Ricardo Alejandro Retano Pelayo, María del Pilar Rodríguez Martínez, and Juan Ricardo López y Taylor
that signal commitment to promote physical activity, the degree to which these have been implemented and impacted physical activity is unknown. We were unable to grade the Family and Peers, Active Play and Physical Fitness indicators due to lack of reliable national data. While data to grade most Daily
Chalchisa Abdeta, Zelalem Teklemariam, Alem Deksisa, and Endashew Abera
. Only the physical fitness indicator received an incomplete grade. This is due to difficulty to get or estimate the fitness data in the country. All other indicators were graded using available data and/or expert estimation. Active play indicator scored the highest grade among the 10 core indicators
Jung-Woo Oh, JungJun Lim, Sang-Hwa Lee, Yu-sun Jin, Bumjo Oh, Chung Gun Lee, Deok Hwan Lee, Eun-Young Lee, Han Joo Lee, Hyon Park, Hyun Joo Kang, Justin Y. Jeon, Mi-Seong Yu, Sang-Hoon Suh, SeJung Park, So Jung Lee, Soo Jung Park, Wook Song, Yewon Yu, Yoonkyung Song, Youngwon Kim, and Yeon Soo Kim
individual physical fitness indicator were the following: Boys = C, girls = C- for cardiovascular strength; boys = C-, girls = C- for muscular strength; boys/girls = F for flexibility. Therefore, physical fitness was graded an overall “D+” grade. Family and Peers INC Due to insufficient data, this indicator
John Scriven, Josephine Cabot, Demri Mitchell, and David Kennedy
data informing the grades is based on self-reported national surveys with PA not being the primary focus. Other limitations include that the data for the school and government indicators are based on RWG’s opinion; the physical fitness indicator data is eight years old; data held on PA does not capture