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Mark R. McKean, Gary Slater, Florin Oprescu and Brendan J. Burkett

Australia has approximately 26,000 registered exercise professionals (REP), in comparison with 3,379 accredited practicing dietitians (APD). The REP workforce has the potential to reach more than 10% of the Australian population but there is limited data on their educational background and professional behaviors with regards to nutritional counseling of clients. The purpose of this research was to determine if REPs are working within their scope of practice and if their qualifications align with their practice, specifically as it relates to nutrition advice. Using a cross sectional descriptive study design, a self-administered online survey of REPs was conducted over 5 months. REPs were recruited through electronic and social media using a snowballing technique. The study focused on education, nutrition advice, and sources of information. A total of 286 respondents completed the survey, including 13 with tertiary dietetic qualifications i.e., APDs. The nationally recognized industry Certificate III/IV in Fitness was the most common qualification. The majority of REPs responding (88%) were working outside of their professional scope of practice, offering individual nutrition advice to clients across fitness and medical issues. This was despite 40% of REPs undertaking no further training in nutrition since graduating, and primarily basing advice on use of readily accessible sources of nutrition information. It is recommended the nutrition advice provided to REPs during training be limited to general nonmedical nutrition information in accordance with nationally endorsed evidence based guidelines and that issues pertaining to scope of practice be addressed with onward referral to other health professionals be advocated.

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Jenny H. Conviser, Amanda Schlitzer Tierney and Riley Nickols

Pediatrics, 2005 ; Rosendahl, Bormann, Aschenbrenner, Aschenbrenner, & Strauss, 2009 ). Coach, Strength and Conditioning Coach, Athletic Trainer, & Physical Therapist It is recommended that coaches, athletic trainers, physical therapists and certified fitness professionals, who are ED-informed or ED

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Scott W. Cheatham

The interprofessional care of clients among allied health professionals has become a frequent practice. 1 – 4 In sports medicine, it is not uncommon for athletes to see various professionals such as a physical therapist (PT), athletic trainer (AT), and fitness professional (FP). 1 , 5 , 6

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Pirkko Markula

This article explores the application of Michel Foucault’s technologies of the self—practices of freedom that are characterized by ethics of self-care, critical awareness, and aesthetic self-stylization. Foucault’s argument states that the technologies of self can act as practices of freedom from disciplinary, discursive body practices. Based on ethnographic fieldwork, this study examines the intersections of Foucault’s theory with commercial fitness practices to identify possibilities for changing the dominant, feminine body discourse. The focus is on fitness practices collectively defined as mindful fitness and specifically one hybrid mindfulfitness form that combines Pilates, yoga, and Tai Chi with western strength training. Through in-depth interviews with the instructors of this hybrid form, this study analyzes the possibilities for mindful fitness to act as a practice of freedom by detailing what can be meant by critically aware, self-stylized fitness professionals for whom ethical care of the self translates to ethical care of the others.

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Katelyn Barnes, Lauren Ball and Ben Desbrow

Personal trainers are well placed to provide nutrition care in line with their recommended scope of practice. However, providing nutrition care beyond their recommended scope of practice has been identified as an industry risk. The International Confederation of Registers for Exercise Professionals (ICREPs) have international standards for nutrition knowledge and skills that are recommended for all fitness professionals, including personal trainers. This study investigates whether the ICREPs standards align with i) national nutrition education standards and ii) national nutrition occupational standards and scopes of practice for personal trainers within ICREPs affiliated countries. Content analysis of each standard and/or scope of practice was undertaken to extract nutrition statements. Extracted statements were matched with nutrition components of the ICREPs standards to result in a score based on the number of aligned ICREPs knowledge and skills criteria. Ten countries, with 16 organizations, were identified as being involved in the development of national education standards, occupational standards, or scopes of practice for personal trainers. The educational and occupational standards varied widely among countries and had minimal alignment with the ICREPs standards. As such, the expected role of personal trainers in providing nutrition care appeared to differ between countries. Further work is required to support personal trainers to develop a level of knowledge and skills that enables the provision of safe, consistent, and effective nutrition care.

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Roberta Bgeginski, Diogo A. DeSousa, Bruna M. Barroso, Janete Vettorazzi, Michelle F. Mottola, Felipe B. Schuch and José Geraldo L. Ramos


The Physical Activity Readiness Medical Examination (PARmed-X) for Pregnancy aims to facilitate the communication between the health care provider, the fitness professional and the pregnant woman. The purpose of the current study was to test the psychometric properties of the Brazilian Portuguese version of the PARmed-X for Pregnancy.


Reliability and validity of psychometric properties of the Brazilian Portuguese version of the PARmed-X for Pregnancy were tested in 107 women recruited from the Hospital de Clínicas de Porto Alegre. Participants completed the first page of the instrument twice with a minimal interval of 1 week for test-retest reliability analysis. The absolute and relative contraindications to exercise on page 2 of the document were completed by the obstetrician.


Results indicated good evidence of construct validity. The isolated items in the PARmed-X document presented a large heterogeneity in kappa coefficients ranging from very low estimates to perfect estimates. The overall indication of prescription of physical activity, nonetheless, presented a good kappa coefficient of 0.749.


The Brazilian Portuguese version of the PARmed-X for Pregnancy can be applied as a valid tool for medical screening by health care providers to help inform safe exercise prescription during pregnancy.

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Scott W. Cheatham, Kyle R. Stull and Morey J. Kolber

Background: Roller massage (RM) has become a common intervention among health and fitness professionals. Recently, manufacturers have merged the science of vibration therapy and RM with the development of vibration rollers. Of interest, is the therapeutic effects of such RM devices. Purpose: The purpose of this study was to compare the effects of a vibration roller and nonvibration roller intervention on prone knee-flexion passive range of motion (ROM) and pressure pain threshold (PPT) of the quadriceps musculature. Methods: Forty-five recreationally active adults were randomly allocated to one of 3 groups: vibration roller, nonvibration roller, and control. Each roller intervention lasted a total of 2 minutes. The control group did not roll. Dependent variables included prone knee-flexion ROM and PPT measures. Statistical analysis included parametric and nonparametric tests to measure changes among groups. Results: The vibration roller demonstrated the greatest increase in PPT (180 kPa, P < .001), followed by the nonvibration roller (112 kPa, P < .001) and control (61 kPa, P < .001). For knee flexion ROM, the vibration roller demonstrated the greatest increase in ROM (7°, P < .001), followed by the nonvibration roller (5°, P < .001) and control (2°, P < .001). Between groups, there was a significant difference in PPT between the vibration and nonvibration roller (P = .03) and vibration roller and control (P < .001). There was also a significant difference between the nonvibration roller and control (P < .001). For knee ROM, there was no significant difference between the vibration and nonvibration roller (P = .31). A significant difference was found between the vibration roller and control group (P < .001) and nonvibration roller and control group (P < .001). Conclusion: The results suggest that a vibration roller may increase an individual’s tolerance to pain greater than a nonvibration roller. This investigation should be considered a starting point for future research on this technology.

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Rachel Arnold, Nicole Bolter, Lori Dithurbide, Karl Erickson, Blair Evans, Larkin Lamarche, Sean Locke, Eric Martin and Kathleen Wilson

Edited by Kim Gammage

:// Motivation: Contagious in Exercise Contexts Numerous factors can impact how fitness professionals interact with their participants. For example, exercisers’ body weight can impact fitness professionals’ beliefs and behaviors. A second factor is perceptions of exercisers’ motivation for exercise. If the

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Scott W. Cheatham, Kyle R. Stull, Mike Fantigrassi and Ian Montel

The squat is a foundational exercise utilized in resistance training programs. Often, the squat is used to develop strength and power in the lower-extremity, and is a fundamental exercise in an athlete’s training program. Allied health and fitness professionals often prescribe different versions of

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Jaana Parviainen

have indicated that the body can provide the dominant site of knowing for fitness professionals ( De Lyon & Cushion, 2013 ; Markula, 2004 ). Although scholars in a variety of disciplines have engaged in epistemological discussions of body knowledge ( Bresler, 2004 ; Evans & Davies 2004 ; Johnson