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Craig A. Horswill

Amateur wrestlers practice weight loss for ergogenic reasons. The effects of rapid weight loss on aerobic performance are adverse and profound, but the effects on anaerobic performance are equivocal Anaerobic performance—strength and power—may be the most relevant type of performance to the wrestler. Maintenance of or even small decrements in anaerobic performance may translate into improvements in performance relative to the weight class, the factor by which wrestlers are matched for competition. During the recovery period between the official weigh-in and competition, wrestlers achieve at least partial nutritional recovery, which appears to benefit performance. Successive bouts of (a) weight loss to make weight and (b) recovery for performance lead to weight cycling. There is speculation that weight cycling may contribute to chronic glycogen depletion, reductions in fat-free weight, a decrease in resting metabolic rate, and an increase in body fat. The latter two would augment the difficulty of losing weight for subsequent weigh-ins. Most research indicates that the suppressed resting metabolic rate with weight loss in wrestlers appears to be transient, but subsequent research is needed for confirmation.

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Jose Morales, Carla Ubasart, Mónica Solana-Tramunt, Israel Villarrasa-Sapiña, Luis-Millán González, David Fukuda and Emerson Franchini

first study to show a reduction in cognitive function by RT following RWL in judo athletes. Examples from the combat sports research literature show limited support for changes in RT following weight adjustment or food restriction. Kraemer et al 14 observed that RT performance in wrestlers was neither

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Kadhiresan R. Murugappan, Michael N. Cocchi, Somnath Bose, Sara E. Neves, Charles H. Cook, Todd Sarge, Shahzad Shaefi and Akiva Leibowitz

cutting.” Common strategies used to “cut” weight include fluid and food restriction, prolonged sauna sessions, hot baths, diuretics, and exercise in vapor-impermeable suits to induce sweating. Competitors have been shown to lose 10% or more of their body weight in the week preceding competition and an

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Dana M. Lis, Daniel Kings and D. Enette Larson-Meyer

). Validation is lacking, and therefore, these alternative testing methods are not currently recommended. For track-and-field athletes, food avoidance based on dubious test results may introduce unnecessary food restriction and associated risks, which are discussed throughout this review. Established food

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Nenad Ponorac, Mira Popović, Dea Karaba-Jakovljević, Zorislava Bajić, Aaron Scanlan, Emilija Stojanović and Dragan Radovanović

.7 ± 0.4 Body mass index (kg/m) 22.5 ± 3.7 21.9 ± 2.3 23.0 ± 2.3 21.1 ± 1.7 22.6 ± 2.8 20.8 ± 3.8 Vegetarian diet 0 3 1 2 0 0 Food restriction/weight loss diet (last year) 3 5 1 1 1 2 *Significantly different to nonathletes ( p  < .05). **Significantly different to soccer athletes ( p  < .05). Laboratory

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Tanya McGuane, Stephen Shannon, Lee-Ann Sharp, Martin Dempster and Gavin Breslin

food restriction, passive and active dehydration, and in some cases drug abuse to make weight. The participants also elaborated on life as a jockey and how it affected their physical and mental health. Dave commented on the requirements from a nutritional perspective and also the resulting impact on

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Boris Dugonjić, Saša Krstulović and Goran Kuvačić

Rehabilitation, 12 ( 3 ), 202 – 208 . doi:10.12965/jer.1632610.305 10.12965/jer.1632610.305 Degoutte , F. , Jouanel , P. , Bègue , R.J. , Colombier , M. , Lac , G. , Pequignot , J.M. , & Filaire , E. ( 2006 ). Food restriction, performance, biochemical, psychological, and endocrine changes in

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Bruno Marrier, Alexandre Durguerian, Julien Robineau, Mounir Chennaoui, Fabien Sauvet, Aurélie Servonnet, Julien Piscione, Bertrand Mathieu, Alexis Peeters, Mathieu Lacome, Jean-Benoit Morin and Yann Le Meur

E , Drogou C , Sauvet F , Bougard C , Chennaoui M . Hyperactivity of the sympatho-adrenomedullary system without any modification of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis after food restriction among high-level weightlifters . J Strength Cond Res . 2018 ; 32 : 1643 – 1655 . PubMed

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Damir Zubac, Hrvoje Karnincic and Damir Sekulic

J Med Sci Sports . 2016 ; 26 : 507 – 517 . PubMed ID: 25916419 doi:10.1111/sms.12485 10.1111/sms.12485 25916419 27. Degoutte F , Jouanel P , Bègue RJ , et al . Food restriction, performance, biochemical, psychological, and endocrine changes in judo athletes . Int J Sports Med . 2006

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Victor Silveira Coswig, Bianca Miarka, Daniel Alvarez Pires, Levy Mendes da Silva, Charles Bartel and Fabrício Boscolo Del Vecchio

statistics ( 4th ed. ). London, UK : Sage . Filaire , E. , Maso , F. , Degoutte , F. , Jouanel , P. , & Lac , G. ( 2001 ). Food restriction, performance, psychological state and lipid values in judo athletes . International Journal of Sports Medicine, 22 ( 6 ), 454 – 459 . PubMed ID