starting from 0 with an increment of 3 during measurement period. Posturographic analysis of dynamic balance was performed using a cylindrical stabilometer with a single degree of freedom. A 48- × 48-cm balance board was placed on the force platform. The two parallel arcs on the underside of the board had
Anis Kamoun, Omar Hammouda, Abdelmoneem Yahia, Oussema Dhari, Houcem Ksentini, Tarak Driss, Nizar Souissi and Mohamed Habib Elleuch
Clare B. Johnson, Shannon L. Mihalko and Karl M. Newell
The study reported had three purposes, namely, to analyze the effect of aging (cohort groups 20–29, 60–69, 70–79, and 80–89 years of age), step length, and self-efficacy on the time to reacquire stability after the execution of a step. The analysis of force-platform data showed that the time to reacquire a stable posture after taking a step increased with increments of age. Correlation analysis showed that older adults were less confident in their ability to complete daily activities without falling or losing balance and that participants with lower levels of balance-related efficacy required a longer time to reacquire stability. These findings provide evidence that aging imposes temporal limitations in the regaining of postural stability that are related to individuals’ perceptions of balance and falls efficacy.
Adrienne J. McNamara, Michael J. Pavol and Katherine B. Gunter
Community-based exercise programs are popular for achieving physical activity among older adults, but the amount of physical activity obtained through such programs is unknown. This study quantified the bone-loading forces and levels of cardiovascular activity associated with participation in “Better Bones and Balance” (BBB), a community-based fall- and fracture-prevention program for older adults.
Thirty-six postmenopausal women age 73.2 ± 7.6 yr engages in BBB participated in this study. Ground-reaction forces (GRFs) associated with BBB exercises were evaluated using a force platform. Session and weekly totals of minutes of moderate to vigorous physical activity (MVPA) and total time spent above 55% maximum heart rate (HR) were measured using accelerometers and HR monitors, respectively.
BBB exercises produced mean 1-leg GRFs of 1.4–2.2 units body weight. Weekly BBB participation was associated with 126 ± 31 min of MVPA.
Activity obtained by BBB participation meets recommended guidelines for skeletal and cardiovascular health.
Sean Clark, Peter W. Iltis, Crystal J. Anthony and Andrea Toews
Despite widespread use of the functional-reach (FR) and limits-of-stability (LOS) tests, comparisons of postural strategies and postural limits for these tests have not been previously reported. The purpose of this study was to compare postural strategies as determined by cross-correlation analyses of trunk and lower leg angular displacements and postural limits as assessed by maximum center-of-gravity (COG) excursions as older adults at low fall risk completed the FR and LOS tests. Fourteen older adults completed three FR and LOS trials while standing on a Balance Master® force platform. Results indicated that despite relatively similar instructions to reach or lean as far as possible without losing balance or altering the base of support, their performance differed with regard to postural strategies employed and maximum COG excursions produced. These findings suggest that because of differences in task constraints, FR and LOS tests should not be used interchangeably.
Telassin Silva Homem, Fernando Silva Guimarães, Maurício Santos Soares, Leandro Kasuki, Mônica Roberto Gadelha and Agnaldo José Lopes
Advances in the knowledge of acromegaly are leading to an increase in the survival rate of acromegalic subjects. This study was conducted to evaluate balance control, risk of falls, and peripheral muscle function in acromegalic older adults. Seventeen older subjects with acromegaly (67 [63–73] years) and 20 paired control subjects were evaluated with balance scales, force platform, and knee isokinetic dynamometry tests. There were significant differences between the groups on several balance and gait scales, with a worse performance and greater risk of falls in the acromegalic older adults. Acromegalic older adults had lower values for peak torque, maximum repetition of the total work, and total work during extension at 240°/s. The acromegalic older adults had higher values in the medial-lateral range. Acromegaly subjects had lateral instability that compromises their body balance and increases the risk of falls. Moreover, there was a propensity for muscle fatigue in these individuals.
Susan Dewhurst, Leslie Peacock and Theodoros M. Bampouras
Physical activity assists older individuals’ functional ability and postural stability. Recently, Scottish country dance (SCD) was reported as being a beneficial form of physical activity for functional ability in older females. This study aims to examine the effect of SCD on postural stability. Scottish country dancers (n = 20) were compared with physically active controls (n = 33) for static postural sway measured on a force platform. The Romberg and Tandem stances were used under ‘eyes open’ and ‘eyes closed’ conditions. Ninety-five percent ellipse area and sway velocity were calculated from the center of pressure displacement. Ninety-five percent ellipse area was the same for both groups in all tests. The control group had greater sway velocity for all tests (P < .01) except Tandem eyes closed. SCD participation resulted in similar postural sway as participation in other physical activities, however nondancers may need a greater amount of regulatory activity to maintain balance.
Hilde Lohne-Seiler, Monica K. Torstveit and Sigmund A. Anderssen
The aim was to determine whether strength training with machines vs. functional strength training at 80% of one-repetition maximum improves muscle strength and power among the elderly. Sixty-three subjects (69.9 ± 4.1 yr) were randomized to a high-power strength group (HPSG), a functional strength group (FSG), or a nonrandomized control group (CG). Data were collected using a force platform and linear encoder. The training dose was 2 times/wk, 3 sets × 8 reps, for 11 wk. There were no differences in effect between HPSG and FSG concerning sit-to-stand power, box-lift power, and bench-press maximum force. Leg-press maximum force improved in HPSG (19.8%) and FSG (19.7%) compared with CG (4.3%; p = .026). Bench-press power improved in HPSG (25.1%) compared with FSG (0.5%, p = .02) and CG (2%, p = .04). Except for bench-press power there were no differences in the effect of the training interventions on functional power and maximal body strength.
Wen-Hao Hsu, Evelyn J. Park, Daniel L. Miranda, Hani M. Sallum, Conor J. Walsh and Eugene C. Goldfield
’s CoM, we custom fabricated a pair of gloves with embedded six-axis force/torque sensors. During tests in a motion capture laboratory setting, these were worn by adults and placed on the hips of their newly walking toddlers as each child stood on a force platform. The contact of the gloves with the
Shani Batcir and Itshak Melzer
determined, balance control was measured. The subjects were instructed to stand barefoot as still as possible on a force platform with their hands crossed behind their back in narrow-base standing (their heels and toes touching) ( Kurz et al., 2013 ). Five 30-s eyes-open trials were obtained from each
Sarah J. Wherry, Cheryl Der Ananian and Pamela D. Swan
been reported ( r = .66, P < .001) and does not appear to be influenced by age. 19 In addition, postural sway was measured with an AMTI AccuSway Force Platform (Watertown, MA) at a sampling rate of 50 Hz and filter frequency of 15 Hz. The filter used was a fourth-order Butterworth implemented as an