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Andre Filipe Santos-Magalhaes and Karen Hambly


The assessment of physical activity and return to sport and exercise activities is an important component in the overall evaluation of outcome after autologous cartilage implantation (ACI).


To identify the patient-report instruments that are commonly used in the evaluation of physical activity and return to sport after ACI and provide a critical analysis of these instruments from a rehabilitative perspective.

Evidence Acquisition:

A computerized search was performed in January 2013 and repeated in March 2013. Criteria for inclusion required that studies (1) be written in English and published between 1994 and 2013; (2) be clinical studies where knee ACI cartilage repair was the primary treatment, or comparison studies between ACI and other techniques or between different ACI generations; (3) report postoperative physical activity and sport participation outcomes results, and (4) have evidence level of I–III.

Evidence Synthesis:

Twenty-six studies fulfilled the inclusion criteria. Three physical activity scales were identified: the Tegner Activity Scale, Modified Baecke Questionnaire, and Activity Rating Scale. Five knee-specific instruments were identified: the Lysholm Knee Function Scale, International Knee Documentation Committee Score Subjective Form, Knee Injury and Osteoarthritis Outcome Score, Modified Cincinnati Knee Score, and Stanmore-Bentley Functional Score.


Considerable heterogeneity exists in the reporting of physical activity and sports participation after ACI. Current instruments do not fulfill the rehabilitative needs in the evaluation of physical activity and sports participation. The validated instruments fail in the assessment of frequency, intensity, and duration of sports participation.

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Danilo de Oliveira Silva, Ronaldo Briani, Marcella Pazzinatto, Deisi Ferrari, Fernando Aragão and Fábio de Azevedo

Individuals with patellofemoral pain (PFP) use different motor strategies during unipodal support in stair climbing activities, which may be assessed by vertical ground reaction force parameters. Thus, the aims of this study were to investigate possible differences in first peak, valley, second peak, and loading rate between recreational female athletes with PFP and pain-free athletes during stair climbing in order to determine the association and prediction capability between these parameters, pain level, and functional status in females with PFP. Thirty-one recreational female athletes with PFP and 31 pain-free recreational female athletes were evaluated with three-dimensional kinetics while performing stair climbing to obtain vertical ground reaction force parameters. A visual analog scale was used to evaluate the usual knee pain. The anterior knee pain scale was used to evaluate knee functional score. First peak and loading rate were associated with pain (r = .46, P = .008; r = .56, P = .001, respectively) and functional limitation (r = .31, P = .049; r = −.36, P = .032, respectively). Forced entry regression revealed the first peak was a significant predictor of pain (36.5%) and functional limitation (28.7%). Our findings suggest that rehabilitation strategies aimed at correcting altered vertical ground reaction force may improve usual knee pain level and self-reported knee function in females with PFP.

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Dominique C. Leibbrandt and Quinette A. Louw

participants achieved improved functional scores (AKPS and LEFS) following the intervention; however, not all of these improvements were clinically significant. The minimal detectable change was 9 points and 8 points for the AKPS and LEFS, respectively. 21 , 22 The minimal clinically important difference was

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Elshan Najafov, Şeyda Özal, Ahmet Yiğit Kaptan, Coşkun Ulucaköy, Ulunay Kanatlı, Baybars Ataoğlu and Selda Başar

the symptoms of other pathologies may complicate the assessment of LHB. However, LHB-related symptoms should be considered separately from the accompanying pathologies. Therefore, general shoulder functional scores like The Society of American Shoulder and Elbow Surgeons Standardized Shoulder

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Erik A. Wikstrom, Kyeongtak Song, Kimmery Migel and Chris J. Hass

singular task in a constrained laboratory environment. Our results are also based on a small sample size with limited contextual information (i.e., no self-reported functional scores). Future research is needed to provide more direct evidence as to how altered loading patterns influence talar cartilage

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Brian D. Street and William Gage

.1097/00003086-199811000-00015 10.1097/00003086-199811000-00015 3. König A , Walther M , Kirschner S , Gohlke F . Balance sheets of knee and functional scores 5 years after total knee arthroplasty for osteoarthritis: a source for patient information . J Arthroplasty . 2000 ; 15 : 289 – 294 . doi:10.1016/S0883

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Cameron J. Powden, Matthew C. Hoch and Johanna M. Hoch

-reported functional scores after knee microfracture for full thickness cartilage lesions . Osteoarthritis Cartilage . 2009 ; 17 ( 8 ): 1009 – 1013 . doi:10.1016/j.joca.2009.02.007 10.1016/j.joca.2009.02.007 19272855 18. Nagl M , Farin E . Response shift in quality of life assessment in patients with chronic

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Xin He, Hio Teng Leong, On Yue Lau, Michael Tim-Yun Ong and Patrick Shu-Hang Yung

Activity level: not reported BPTB (n = 14), STG (n = 13) BPTB: 15.1 (5.0) mo, STG: 14.2 (4.5) mo 1. All regained full ROM 2. Overall knee functional score: BPTB: 81.1 (16.1) STG: 87.5 (11.8) Single-leg maximal, countermovement hop for distance VL, VM, MH, and LH n = 22, healthy controls Coats‐Thomas (2013

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Alex Brun and Michelle A. Sandrey

utilizing a mobilization belt for hip mobilization was conducted using the Mulligan mobilization with movement technique. 15 This study found the Mulligan mobilization with movement technique increased hip flexion and internal rotation along with functional scores on the timed-up and go test, 30-second

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Irineu Loturco, Michael R. McGuigan, Valter P. Reis, Sileno Santos, Javier Yanci, Lucas A. Pereira and Ciro Winckler

, observing that this ability does not vary significantly throughout the season. Gil et al. ( 2015 ) reported that some power parameters are positively related to the disability level, with higher WB classes (i.e., athletes with high functional scores) achieving superior performances in medicine ball