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Danilo de Oliveira Silva, Ronaldo Briani, Marcella Pazzinatto, Deisi Ferrari, Fernando Aragão and Fábio de Azevedo

Individuals with patellofemoral pain (PFP) use different motor strategies during unipodal support in stair climbing activities, which may be assessed by vertical ground reaction force parameters. Thus, the aims of this study were to investigate possible differences in first peak, valley, second peak, and loading rate between recreational female athletes with PFP and pain-free athletes during stair climbing in order to determine the association and prediction capability between these parameters, pain level, and functional status in females with PFP. Thirty-one recreational female athletes with PFP and 31 pain-free recreational female athletes were evaluated with three-dimensional kinetics while performing stair climbing to obtain vertical ground reaction force parameters. A visual analog scale was used to evaluate the usual knee pain. The anterior knee pain scale was used to evaluate knee functional score. First peak and loading rate were associated with pain (r = .46, P = .008; r = .56, P = .001, respectively) and functional limitation (r = .31, P = .049; r = −.36, P = .032, respectively). Forced entry regression revealed the first peak was a significant predictor of pain (36.5%) and functional limitation (28.7%). Our findings suggest that rehabilitation strategies aimed at correcting altered vertical ground reaction force may improve usual knee pain level and self-reported knee function in females with PFP.

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Tomohiro Yasuda

to evaluate the functional status of individuals and to identify and treat those at risk for mobility problems and frailty. In the periodic and field-based simplified approaches, the handgrip strength measurement has been widely used in clinical practice for the assessment of muscle size or strength

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Michael L. Voight and Gray Cook

Enhancing the ability to function within one's environment and to perform activities of daily living is a common goal in rehabilitation. The entire rehabilitation process should be focused on improving the patient's functional status. A functional progression for return to activity can be developed by breaking specific activities down into a hierarchy and then performing them in a sequence that allows for acquisition or reacquisition of skill. Rehabilitation following injury has focused upon restoring muscular strength, endurance, and joint flexibility without any consideration of the role of the neuromuscular mechanism. A common error in rehabilitation is assuming that clinical programs alone using traditional methods will safely return the athlete to function. Limiting athletic rehabilitation to these traditional programs often results in an incomplete restoration of athletic ability and quite possibly an increased risk of reinjury. Reactive neuromuscular training fills the gap left by traditional rehabilitation in order to return the athlete to activity.

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Rangasamy Suresh Babu, P. Anand, Mathew Jeraud, P. Periasamy and A. Namasivayam

Experimental studies concerning the analysis of locomotor behavior in spinal cord injury research are widely performed in rodent models. The purpose of this study was to quantitatively evaluate the degree of functional recovery in reflex components and bipedal locomotor behavior of bonnet macaques (Macaca radiata) after spinal contusive injury. Six monkeys were tested for various reflex components (grasping, righting, hopping, extension withdrawal) and were trained preoperatively to walk in bipedal fashion on the simple and complex locomotor runways (narrow beam, grid, inclined plane, treadmill) of this investigation. The overall performance of the animals’ motor behavior and the functional status of limb movements during bipedal locomotion were graded by the Combined Behavioral Score (CBS) system. Using the simple Allen weight-drop technique, a contusive injury was produced by dropping a 13-g weight from a height of 30 cm to the exposed spinal cord at the T12-L1 vertebral level of the trained monkeys. All the monkeys showed significant impairments in every reflex activity and in walking behavior during the early part of the postoperative period. In subsequent periods, the animals displayed mild alterations in certain reflex responses, such as grasping, extension withdrawal, and placing reflexes, which persisted through a 1-year follow-up. The contused animals traversed locomotor runways—narrow beam, incline plane, and grid runways—with more steps and few errors, as evaluated with the CBS system. Eventually, the behavioral performance of all spinal-contused monkeys recovered to near-preoperative level by the fifth postoperative month. The findings of this study reveal the recovery time course of various reflex components and bipedal locomotor behavior of spinal-contused macaques on runways for a postoperative period of up to 1 year. Our spinal cord research in primates is advantageous in understanding the characteristics of hind limb functions only, which possibly mimic the human motor behavior. This study may be also useful in detecting the beneficial effect of various donor tissue–neuroprotective drugs on the repair of impaired functions in a bipedal primate model of spinal injury.

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Bernardo Gialanella, Francesco Grossetti, Marina Mazza, Laura Danna and Laura Comini

study protocol, which was carried out in accordance with the principles of the Declaration of Helsinki (1975, revised in 1983). Motor and Functional Status Assessment Age, gender, rotator cuff tear size (coded small, medium, large, and massive if less than 1 cm, from 1 to 3 cm, from 3 to 5 cm, and

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Xin He, Hio Teng Leong, On Yue Lau, Michael Tim-Yun Ong and Patrick Shu-Hang Yung

relevant data were extracted from all included studies: (1) general information (author and year of publication), (2) subjects’ characteristics (age, gender, and activity level), (3) time since surgery, (4) graft type, (5) functional status/sport involvement, (6) task(s) performed, (7) muscle(s) tested

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Serkan Usgu, Günseli Usgu, Fatma Uygur and Yavuz Yakut

distance 22 , 23 and shuttle run 20 in normal subjects and injured subjects. 24 In this study, FPTs were used to determine unilateral lower extremity functional status or the functional weaknesses of an injured athlete. No prior FAAM versions have assessed criterion validity using the shuttle run and

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Jennifer S. Howard, Aaron Sciascia and Johanna M. Hoch

his functional status. (The KJOC is 10 questions, each scored 0 [low function] to 10 [high function], with a top score of 100.) After review of the PRO, the patient’s primary complaints were an inability to accurately throw to a target (1 out of 10), decreased velocity (2 out of 10), and weakness with

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Elif Turgut, Irem Duzgun and Gul Baltaci

general, stretching training allows flexibility and mobility gains as well as performance enhancement. 12 Therefore, stretching training for structures related to the scapula and shoulder may affect clinical symptoms and functional status in participants with SIS. From this point of view, therefore, the