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Jordan Santos-Concejero, Jesús Oliván, José L. Maté-Muñoz, Carlos Muniesa, Marta Montil, Ross Tucker and Alejandro Lucia

Purpose:

This study aimed to determine whether biomechanical characteristics such as ground-contact time, swing time, and stride length and frequency contribute to the exceptional running economy of East African runners.

Methods:

Seventeen elite long-distance runners (9 Eritrean, 8 European) performed an incremental maximal running test and 3 submaximal running bouts at 17, 19, and 21 km/h. During the tests, gas-exchange parameters were measured to determine maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max) and running economy (RE). In addition, ground-contact time, swing time, stride length, and stride frequency were measured.

Results:

The European runners had higher VO2max values than the Eritrean runners (77.2 ± 5.2 vs 73.5 ± 6.0 mL · kg−1 · min−1, P = .011, effect sizes [ES] = 0.65), although Eritrean runners were more economical at 19 km/h (191.4 ± 10.4 vs 205.9 ± 13.3 mL · kg−1 · min−1, P = .026, ES = 1.21). There were no differences between groups for ground-contact time, swing time, stride length, or stride frequency at any speed. Swing time was associated with running economy at 21 km/h in the Eritrean runners (r = .71, P = .033), but no other significant association was found between RE and biomechanical variables. Finally, best 10-km performance was significantly correlated with RE (r = –.57; P = .013).

Conclusions:

Eritrean runners have superior RE compared with elite European runners. This appears to offset their inferior VO2max. However, the current data suggest that their better RE does not have a biomechanical basis. Other factors, not measured in the current study, may contribute to this RE advantage.

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Josu Gomez-Ezeiza, Jordan Santos-Concejero, Jon Torres-Unda, Brian Hanley and Nicholas Tam

subphases, were associated with better oxygen cost of transport in elite race walkers. 5 Although recent gait analyses in race walking have mostly assessed peaks, range of motion, and other discrete parameters of the entire gait cycle, 5 – 7 a comprehensive understanding of the role and activity of the

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Submaximal and Maximal Parameters in Elite Rock Climbers Michail Lubomirov Michailov * Audry Morrison * Mano Mitkov Ketenliev * Boyanka Petkova Pentcheva * 4 2015 10 3 374 380 10.1123/ijspp.2014-0160 Gait-Cycle Characteristics and Running Economy in Elite Eritrean and European Runners Jordan Santos

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Heather K. Vincent, Laura A. Zdziarski, Kyle Fallgatter, Giorgio Negron, Cong Chen, Trevor Leavitt, MaryBeth Horodyski, Joseph G. Wasser and Kevin R. Vincent

. Kinematics and Temporal Spatial Parameters We averaged data from 10 consecutive strides from each testing condition during the last 30 seconds of each 5-minute condition. Cadence was the number of gait cycles per minute. The vertical displacement of the COM was calculated as the difference in the maximal and

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Amy Waters, Elissa Phillips, Derek Panchuk and Andrew Dawson

.1%) than the coaches (13.5%) (Figure  1 ). The stance phase of sprinting technique refers to the period in the gait cycle where the foot is in contact with the ground ( Novacheck, 1998 ). The coaches’ comments focused on broader concepts, such as balance and the time in contact with the ground, whereas the

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Nicholas Tam, Ross Tucker, Jordan Santos-Concejero, Danielle Prins and Robert P. Lamberts

filtered using a low-pass fourth-order Butterworth filter with a cutoff frequency of 8 and 60 Hz, respectively. For each trial, 1 complete gait cycle was analyzed. The lower body Plug-In Gait model calculated 3-dimensional lower-extremity joint angles and net resultant joint moments using a Newton

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Mohsen Shafizadeh, Nicola Theis and Keith Davids

dominant tibia frequency of forefoot runners without disabilities at lower ranges emerged later in the gait cycle than in the RaceRunning athletes (7.2 vs. 3.62 Hz, respectively). In contrast, the higher frequency ranges emerged at almost a similar point (10.7 vs. 10.25 Hz, respectively). For the head, the

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Jennifer K. Sansom and Beverly D. Ulrich

relatively rigid posture throughout the gait cycle. Due to the mechanical constraints imposed by crutches on users and increases in upper arm muscular activation, energy consumption rates for adolescents with MMC using crutches have been found to be greater compared with unaided ambulation and typical

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Leah S. Goudy, Brandon Rhett Rigby, Lisa Silliman-French and Kevin A. Becker

the natural movement of a horse during its gait cycle ( Rigby et al., 2015 ). The device typically consists of a saddle-like platform to sit on, handlebars to grasp onto, and stirrups to safely secure the feet. Most simulators can reproduce the horse’s motion during a walking cadence and can vary the