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Hwang-Jae Lee, Won Hyuk Chang, Sun Hee Hwang, Byung-Ok Choi, Gyu-Ha Ryu and Yun-Hee Kim

The purpose of this study was to examine age-related gait characteristics and their associations with balance function in older adults. A total of 51 adult volunteers participated. All subjects underwent locomotion analysis using a 3D motion analysis and 12-channel dynamic electromyography system. Dynamic balance function was assessed by the Berg Balance Scale. Older adults showed a higher level of muscle activation than young adults, and there were significant positive correlations between increased age and activation of the trunk and thigh muscles in the stance and swing phase of the gait cycle. In particular, back extensor muscle activity was mostly correlated with the dynamic balance in older adults. Thus, back extensor muscle activity in walking may provide a clue for higher falling risk in older adults. This study demonstrates that the back extensor muscles play very important roles with potential for rehabilitation training to improve balance and gait in older adults.

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Ronita L. Cromwell and Roberta A. Newton

Age-related adaptations during walking create a more stable walking pattern, which is less effective for forward progression and might be related to balance deficiencies. This study determined the relationship between walking stability and measures of balance in older adults. Seventeen older and 20 young adults performed the Berg Balance Test (BBT) and walked 10 m. Walking velocity (WV) and cadence were measured, and a gait-stability ratio (GSR) was calculated. Higher GSR indicated that a greater portion of the gait cycle was spent in double-limb support. Age-group comparisons established declines in BBT scores and WV and increases in GSR with age. Significant relationships were identified for BBT Item 12 (alternate stepping on a stool) with WV (r = .58, r 2 = .34) and GSR (r = −.74, r 2 = .54). The correlation of BBT Item 12 with GSR was stronger than with WV (p < .05). Results indicated a strong relationship between increased gait stability and decreased balance for a dynamic weight-shifting task. Therefore, GSR is a better indicator of balance deficits during walking than is WV alone.

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Mustafa M.O. Elhadi, Christina Z. Ma, Duo W.C. Wong, Anson H.P. Wan and Winson C.C. Lee

, and Aminian ( 2009 ) reported the changes in gait patterns upon walking longer distances of older adults. They found significant increases in stride velocity and decrease in gait cycle time after the walk. However, their study confined a maximum walking distance of 20 m, which was completed in almost

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Katie A. Conway and Jason R. Franz

maximum speed walking (Fast) compared with reference data in young adults while walking at preferred speed (Young) plotted against an average gait cycle, from heel strike to heel strike. (b) Group average ( SD ) peak anterior GRF during each condition. *Local maxima with significant differences from Pref

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Seung-uk Ko, Gerald J. Jerome, Eleanor M. Simonsick, Stephanie Studenski and Luigi Ferrucci

walk along a 10-m long walkway at their self-selected usual walking pace until they had completed at least three gait cycles from the left and right sides, with the full foot landing on the force platform ( Ko, Ling, Schreiber, Nesbitt, & Ferrucci, 2011 ). The raw coordinate data of marker positions

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Lei Zhou, Marie-Anne Gougeon and Julie Nantel

the gait cycle, it is also critical to assure safe bodyweight transfer from one leg to the other and, in this case, from the strongest leg to the weakest leg. As postural instability in the medial–lateral direction has been associated with higher risk of falls in PD ( Beaulne-Séguin & Nantel, 2016

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Seung-uk Ko, Gerald J. Jerome, Eleanor M. Simonsick and Luigi Ferrucci

motion Mean ( SE ) a Mean ( SE ) p value a Gait parameters  Speed (m/s) 1.09 (0.01) 1.15 (0.01) .001  Stride length (m) 1.20 (0.01) 1.21 (0.01) .270  Stance (%gait cycle) 63.10 (0.12) 63.01 (0.10) .577  Cadence (steps/min) 113.42 (0.56) 112.97 (0.47) .563 Range of motion (deg)  Hip 38.36 (0.31) 38.70 (0

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Yoav Gimmon, Hisham Rashad, Ilan Kurz, Meir Plotnik, Raziel Riemer, Ronen Debi, Amir Shapiro and Itshak Melzer

. Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, 82 , 1050 – 1056 . PubMed ID: 11494184 doi:10.1053/apmr.2001.24893 10.1053/apmr.2001.24893 Jordan , K. , Challis , J.H. , & Newell , K.M. ( 2007 ). Walking speed influences on gait cycle variability . Gait & Posture, 26 , 128 – 134 . PubMed ID

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Yoshifumi Kijima, Ryoji Kiyama, Masaki Sekine, Toshiyo Tamura, Toshiro Fujimoto, Tetsuo Maeda and Tadasu Ohshige

-axial accelerometer . Gait & Posture, 30 ( 1 ), 60 – 64 . PubMed doi:10.1016/j.gaitpost.2009.02.017 10.1016/j.gaitpost.2009.02.017 Moe-Nilssen , R. , & Helbostad , J.L. ( 2004 ). Estimation of gait cycle characteristics by trunk accelerometry . Journal of Biomechanics, 37 ( 1 ), 121 – 126 . PubMed doi:10

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Daniel Leightley, Moi Hoon Yap, Jessica Coulson, Mathew Piasecki, James Cameron, Yoann Barnouin, Jon Tobias and Jamie S. McPhee

gait cycle and transitions from sit to stand, which increases the risk of falls ( Rubenstein, 2006 ). The reduced postural control and mobility may occur in part due to the increased tendency for older people to be sedentary ( McPhee et al., 2016 ). Relatively short-term exercise training lasting just