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Pawel R. Golyski, Elizabeth M. Bell, Elizabeth M. Husson, Erik J. Wolf and Brad D. Hendershot

promising focus of gait training paradigms for specific patient populations to minimize musculoskeletal loads during gait and mitigate risk for secondary complications. Acknowledgments This work was supported, in part, by the DoD-VA Extremity Trauma and Amputation Center of Excellence, the BADER Consortium

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Rob van der Straaten, Oren Tirosh, William A. (Tony) Sparrow and Rezaul Begg

supplementing or “augmenting” intrinsic, task-specific, sensory information. 9 It was, therefore, speculated that a gait training procedure using MTC information may be useful in augmenting, or substituting, sensory information either attenuated or lost as a consequence of aging, injury, or disease. Augmented

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Deborah F. Verfaillie, Jeanne F. Nichols, Ellen Turkel and Melbourne F. Hovell

The purpose of this study was to compare the effects of resistance training alone or in combination with balance and gait training on balance and gait measures in seniors. Subjects, ranging in age from 65 to 83 years, were randomly assigned to a strength and balance/gait group (SB, n = 21 ) or a control group (S, n = 18) receiving strength and relaxation training. Both groups significantly increased their strength and gait speed over the 12-week training period, but step length remained unchanged. The results suggest that elders can make significant gains in muscular strength and walking speed through resistance training, and that adding balance and gait training to resistance training can significantly improve some balance and gait measures beyond improvements achieved from strength training alone. If replicated, these results set the stage for investigations of injury control benefits possible from balance training.

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Amy K. Hegarty, Max J. Kurz, Wayne Stuberg and Anne K. Silverman

The goal of this pilot study was to characterize the effects of gait training on the capacity of muscles to produce body accelerations and relate these changes to mobility improvements seen in children with cerebral palsy (CP). Five children (14 years ± 3 y; GMFCS I-II) with spastic diplegic CP participated in a 6-week gait training program. Changes in 10-m fast-as-possible walking speed and 6-minute walking endurance were used to assess changes in mobility. In addition, musculoskeletal modeling was used to determine the potential of lower-limb muscles to accelerate the body’s center of mass vertically and forward during stance. The mobility changes after the training were mixed, with some children demonstrating vast improvements, while others appeared to be minimal. However, the musculoskeletal results revealed unique responses for each child. The most common changes occurred in the capacity for the hip and knee extensors to produce body support and the hip flexors to produce body propulsion. These results cannot yet be generalized to the broad population of children with CP, but demonstrate that therapy protocols may be enhanced by modeling analyses. The pilot study results provide motivation for gait training emphasizing upright leg posture, mediolateral balance, and ankle push-off.

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Oladipo O. Eddo, Bryndan W. Lindsey, Shane V. Caswell, Matt Prebble and Nelson Cortes

Gait modification using real-time biofeedback is a conservative intervention associated with positive outcomes. Results from systematic reviews corroborate the effectiveness of various strategies employing real-time biofeedback for reducing estimated knee joint load. The effects on the nonmodified limb, however, remain unclear. Biomechanical changes to the nonmodified limb were investigated during unilaterally implemented medial knee thrust, lateral trunk lean, and toe-in foot progression. Nineteen healthy participants were recruited. Ten trials were completed for each gait condition including baseline. Assigned magnitude for each gait modification strategy was individualized based on the mean and SD of the gait parameter during baseline. Visual real-time biofeedback was provided. During medial knee thrust, participants’ nonmodified limb presented with increased: first peak medial knee contact force, internal first peak knee extensor moment, as well as knee- and hip-flexion angles at internal first peak knee extensor moment. Observed biomechanical changes are elucidative of the body’s attempt to attenuate increased external loads. These findings may carry significant implications for pathological populations. Load redistribution to the nonmodified side may result in unfavorable long-term outcomes particularly in patients with bilateral diagnosis. Future studies should explore acute and chronic changes in the nonmodified limb of individuals with knee osteoarthritis.

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Michiel Punt, Sjoerd M. Bruijn, Ingrid G. van de Port, Ilona J.M. de Rooij, Harriet Wittink and Jaap H. van Dieën

perturbation characteristics, see our previous studies. 10 The design of the intervention is in line with the framework for motor learning developed by Guadagnoli and Lee. 12 The participants received 10 perturbation-based gait training sessions in a 6-week period, which appear to be sufficient to evaluate

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Jessie M. Huisinga, Kendra K. Schmid, Mary L. Filipi and Nicholas Stergiou

Patients with multiple sclerosis (MS) experience abnormal gait patterns and reduced physical activity. The purpose of this study was to determine if an elliptical exercise intervention for patients with MS would change joint kinetics during gait toward healthy control values. Gait analysis was performed on patients with MS (n = 24) before and after completion of 15 sessions of supervised exercise. Joint torques and powers were calculated, while also using walking velocity as a covariate, to determine the effects of elliptical exercise on lower extremity joint kinetics during gait. Results show that elliptical exercise significantly altered joint torques at the ankle and hip and joint powers at the ankle during stance. The change in joint power at the ankle indicates that, after training, patients with MS employed a walking strategy that is more similar to that of healthy young adults. These results support the use of elliptical exercise as a gait training tool for patients with MS.

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.1123/jab.2019-0031 jab.2019-0031 Effects of Visually Augmented Gait Training on Foot-Ground Clearance: An Intervention to Reduce Tripping-Related Falls Rob van der Straaten * Oren Tirosh * William A. (Tony) Sparrow * Rezaul Begg * 1 02 2020 36 1 20 26 10.1123/jab.2018-0291 jab.2018-0291 Compromised

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* 7 1997 5 3 175 189 10.1123/japa.5.3.175 Research Older Adults’ Constraints to Participation in Structured Exercise Classes Diane E. Whaley * Vicki Ebbeck * 7 1997 5 3 190 212 10.1123/japa.5.3.190 Effects of Resistance, Balance, and Gait Training on Reduction of Risk Factors Leading to Falls in

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in College Swimmers Yusuke Ikeda * Hiroshi Ichikawa * Rio Nara * Yasuhiro Baba * Yoshimitsu Shimoyama * Yasuyuki Kubo * 10 2016 32 5 462 468 10.1123/jab.2015-0303 Changes in Mobility and Muscle Function of Children with Cerebral Palsy after Gait Training: A Pilot Study Amy K. Hegarty