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George B. Cunningham, Erin Buzuvis and Chris Mosier

). Although the bills varied slightly, they all sought to restrict access to the facility one could use—whether a restroom, locker room, or a similar facility—based on that person’s sex assigned at birth. As transgender individuals’ sex assigned at birth differs from their gender identity and/or gender

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Shannon S. C. Herrick and Lindsay R. Duncan

It is well documented that individuals with minority sexual orientations and minority gender identities [ie, lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, queer, etc (LGBTQ+)] experience discrimination, stigmatization, and marginalization on a variety of institutional and personal levels. 1 , 2 The

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Heather Sykes

This article examines developments in gender policies in sport in relation to recent changes in transsexual rights legislation and gender identity activism. The Gay Games has developed a gender identity policy about “men, women, transgender and intersex” athletes. In 2004, the International Olympic Committee (IOC) introduced the Stockholm Consensus on sex reassignment surgery to allow “transsexual” athletes to compete at the Olympics. These developments do not indicate an overall increase in the acceptance of gender variance in the world of sport; rather, there has been ongoing resistance to inclusive gender policies in mainstream sport organizations. I argue this resistance is based on anxieties about the instability of the male/female gender binary and the emergence of queer gender subjectivities within women’s, gay, and mainstream sporting communities.

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Jenny Meggs, Mark Chen and Danielle Mounfield

Research has identified a correlation between prenatal markers of testosterone (2D4D) and sport performance. This relationship is thought to be explained by several important psychophysiological variables such as physical fitness and mental toughness. The current study sought to add to this body of research by examining the differences between high and low 2D4D, in measures of gender identity (Bem Sex Role Inventory) and mental toughness (the 48-item version of the Mental Toughness Questionnaire). A sample of 116 recreational (n = 59) and competitive netballers (n = 57) completed the psychological measures and provided right-hand scans from which 2D4D ratio measures were drawn. The key results included a large effect of low digit ratio on emotional control, life control, and interpersonal confidence. These findings suggest that 2D4D could provide a marker for sporting potential and mental toughness in female sport participants. However, future research may wish to establish the relative contribution of prenatal factors (e.g., 2D4D) and socialization factors (e.g., involvement in a sporting context) on sporting ability and related psychological variables.

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Tamar Z. Semerjian and Jodi H. Cohen

Viviane K. Namaste (2000) argues that trans-individuals have been culturally erased and rendered invisible. She contends that academics should begin to explore the realities of transgender individuals’ lives. Transgender identified athletes have begun to garner more media attention in recent years, particularly with the 2004 International Olympic Committee’s ruling allowing transgender athletes to participate in the Olympics. Despite this increasing media attention, there is a considerable lack of academic work focusing on the experiences of transgender athletes, as well as a paucity of any serious theoretical consideration of these experiences. The purpose of this paper is to present trans athletes’ narratives of their sport participation, with attention to how gender identity and performance was or was not a part of this participation. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with four trans identified athletes. The narratives of these athletes portray a way of thinking about gender as a category that is transmutable, unstable, and constantly written and rewritten through embodied performances. Queer theory will serve as the theoretical perspective used to analyze these narratives.

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Bethany Alice Jones, Emma Haycraft, Walter Pierre Bouman and Jon Arcelus

between their sex assigned at birth and their gender identity. Transgender women are those assigned male at birth but who identify as female. Transgender men are those assigned female at birth but who identify as male. Some people may identify outside the binary gender system (eg, gender neutral

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Elizabeth A. Baiocchi-Wagner and Elizabeth Behm-Morawitz

Attempts at investigating female sports reporters’ credibility and persuasiveness from the audience’s perspective are limited and outdated. This study, grounded in social identity theory, fills the gap in media literature. A quasi-experiment tested respondents’ perceptions of male and female sports reporters’ credibility and persuasiveness as a function of salient gender identity and reporter and athlete sex. Respondents’ sports fandom, frequency of sports-media usage, and general perceptions of news-media credibility also were examined. Results of a MANOVA indicated no significant differences in respondents’ perceptions of a male and female reporter, even when controlling for respondent gender; however, sports fandom and general perceptions of news-media credibility did have a significant impact on perceptions.

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Zachary McCarver, Shelby Anderson, Justine Vosloo and Sebastian Harenberg

.e., demographics such as age, gender identity, education level, occupation status, practicing country, racial background, sexual orientation, and disability status) was used. One item inquired about experiences of discrimination (“Have you experienced any form of discrimination in the field of sport and exercise

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Shannon S.C. Herrick and Lindsay R. Duncan

, & Landers, 2010 ; Daniel & Butkus, 2015 ; Mereish & Poteat, 2015 ). Given the diversity encompassed by the umbrella term LGBTQ+, a glossary of terms ( Appendix ) including sexual orientations, gender identities, and other LGBTQ+ terms has been created to accompany this research. All terms that are defined