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Sandra C. Webber and Michelle M. Porter

This exploratory study examined the feasibility of using Garmin global positioning system (GPS) watches and ActiGraph accelerometers to monitor walking and other aspects of community mobility in older adults. After accuracy at slow walking speeds was initially determined, 20 older adults (74.4 ± 4.2 yr) wore the devices for 1 day. Steps, distances, and speeds (on foot and in vehicle) were determined. GPS data acquisition varied from 43 min to over 12 hr, with 55% of participants having more than 8 hr between initial and final data-collection points. When GPS data were acquired without interruptions, detailed mobility information was obtained regarding the timing, distances covered, and speeds reached during trips away from home. Although GPS and accelerometry technology offer promise for monitoring community mobility patterns, new GPS solutions are required that allow for data collection over an extended period of time between indoor and outdoor environments.

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Kathleen Meghan Wieters, Jun-Hyun Kim and Chanam Lee

Background:

Responding to the growing interest in the environmental influences on physical activity, and the concerns about the limitations of self-report data, this study evaluates Global Positioning System (GPS) units for measuring outdoor physical activity.

Methods:

Four GPS models were selected to test their accuracy related to adherence to an actual route walked, variations based on position of unit on user’s body, and variations against a known geodetic point. A qualitative assessment was performed using the following criteria: a) battery life, b) memory capacity, c) initial satellite signal acquisition time, d) ease of data transfer to other programs, e) wearability, f) ease of operation, g) suitability for specific study populations, and h) price.

Results and Conclusions:

The Garmin Forerunner provided the most accurate data for data points collected along a known route. Comparisons based on different body placement of units showed some variations. GlobalSat reported battery life of 24 hours, compared with 9–15 hours for the other units. The static test using ANOVA showed that the Garmin Foretrex’s data points compared with a geodetic point was significantly more accurate than the other 3 models. GPS units appear promising as a tool to capture objective data on outdoor physical activities.

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Shannon N. Zenk, Amy J. Schulz, Angela M. Odoms-Young, JoEllen Wilbur, Stephen Matthews, Cindy Gamboa, Lani R. Wegrzyn, Susan Hobson and Carmen Stokes

Background:

Global positioning systems (GPS) have emerged as a research tool to better understand environmental influences on physical activity. This study examined the feasibility of using GPS in terms of perceived acceptability, barriers, and ease of use in a racially/ethnically diverse sample of lower socioeconomic position (SEP).

Methods:

Data were from 2 pilot studies involving a total of 170 African American, Hispanic, and White urban adults with a mean (standard deviation) age of 47.8 (±13.1) years. Participants wore a GPS for up to 7 days. They answered questions about GPS acceptability, barriers (wear-related concerns), and ease of use before and after wearing the GPS.

Results:

We found high ratings of GPS acceptability and ease of use and low levels of wear-related concerns, which were maintained after data collection. While most were comfortable with their movements being tracked, older participants (P < .05) and African Americans (P < .05) reported lower comfort levels. Participants who were younger, with higher education, and low incomes were more likely to indicate that the GPS made the study more interesting (P < .05). Participants described technical and wear-related problems, but few concerns related to safety, loss, or appearance.

Conclusions:

Use of GPS was feasible in this racially/ethnically diverse, lower SEP sample.

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Dave H.H. Van Kann, Sanne I. de Vries, Jasper Schipperijn, Nanne K. de Vries, Maria W.J. Jansen and Stef P.J. Kremers

encouraging PA. The use of global positioning system (GPS) data in addition to accelerometer data has been advocated in health behavior studies in order to enrich data with location-specific information, 31 allowing researchers to more accurately specify the use of physical environments in relation to PA and

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Matthew Pearce, David H. Saunders, Peter Allison and Anthony P. Turner

. 17 By dividing adolescent leisure-time physical activity into context-based dimensions and combining data from global positioning system (GPS) receivers, diaries, and accelerometers, it may be possible to more accurately characterize the specific contexts where MVPA occurs. Consistent with an

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Kosuke Tamura, Jeffrey S. Wilson, Robin C. Puett, David B. Klenosky, William A. Harper and Philip J. Troped

accelerometers and global positioning system (GPS) units can be used to quantify PA occurring on trails and thereby provide a better understanding of how community trails can support regular PA. 23 , 24 To date, researchers have concurrently used these devices to objectively assess how much PA occurs at home

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Brian M. Wood, Herman Pontzer, Jacob A. Harris, Audax Z.P. Mabulla, Marc T. Hamilton, Theodore W. Zderic, Bret A. Beheim and David A. Raichlen

pedestrian travel can be gathered with relative ease using either accelerometers or Global Positioning System (GPS) devices ( Chen, Janz, Zhu, & Brychta, 2012 ; Terrier & Schutz, 2005 ). Ideally, data from these sources could be integrated to enable greater comparative research and build on the specific

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Chelsea Steel, Carolina Bejarano and Jordan A. Carlson

Concurrent use of multiple person-worn sensors, such as combining data from Global Positioning Systems (GPS) trackers and accelerometers, is becoming more common in field-based physical activity research. The use of GPS trackers combined with accelerometers has been particularly useful in the

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Levi Frehlich, Christine Friedenreich, Alberto Nettel-Aguirre, Jasper Schipperijn and Gavin R. McCormack

measure of geographical location. Recent studies have captured location specific physical activity through the use of Global Position Systems (GPS) monitors usually linked via time stamp with accelerometer data ( Jansen et al., 2018 ; Troped, Wilson, Matthews, Cromley, & Melly, 2010 ). GPS linked

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Charlotte Skau Pawlowski, Henriette Bondo Andersen and Jasper Schipperijn

preresults and postresults comparison. The aim of the study was to evaluate the effect, process, and user perspective of schoolyard renewals. To provide a comprehensive evaluation, a range of quantitative (accelerometers, global positioning system [GPS] devices, and survey) and qualitative methods