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Timothy D. Heden, Ying Liu, Young-Min Park, Nathan C. Winn and Jill A. Kanaley

Background:

This study assessed if walking at a self-selected pace could improve postprandial glucose and insulin concentrations in obese adolescents consuming high-fructose (HF) or high-glucose (HG) diets.

Methods:

Seven obese male and female adolescents (18 ± 1 yr) performed 4, 15-day trials in a random order, including 1) HF-diet (50 g fructose/d added to normal diet) while being sedentary, 2) HG-diet (50 g glucose/d) while sedentary, 3) HF-diet with additional walking, and 4) HG-diet with additional walking. On the 15th day of each trial, the participants performed mixed meal testing in the laboratory in which they consumed three liquid shakes (either HF or HG) and during the HF and HG sedentary trials, the participants took < 4000 steps while in the laboratory but during the walking trials took ≥ 13,000 steps during testing.

Results:

Walking did not alter postprandial glucose concentrations. Although walking reduced insulin secretion by 34% and 25% during the HF- and HG-diet, respectively (P < .05), total insulin concentrations were only significantly reduced (P > .05) with walking during the HF trial, possibly because walking enhanced insulin clearance to a greater extent during the HF-diet.

Conclusions:

Walking reduces postprandial insulin secretion in obese adolescents consuming a high-fructose or high-glucose diet.

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Edward A. Gray, Thomas A. Green, James A. Betts and Javier T. Gonzalez

contributes to the maintenance of blood glucose availability during exercise, a lack of which is associated with the onset of fatigue ( Coyle & Coggan, 1984 ). In contrast to muscle glycogen, liver glycogen synthesis is potently increased by coingestion of the low-glycemic index carbohydrate, fructose, with

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Laís Monteiro Rodrigues Loureiro, Caio Eduardo Gonçalves Reis and Teresa Helena Macedo da Costa

involved in the process of glycogen synthesis. Adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK) is an enzyme responsible for the translocation of glucose transporter 4 (GLUT-4) to the cell membrane when activated by skeletal muscle contraction ( Mu et al., 2001 ; Stapleton et al., 1996 ). AMPK

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Rachel B. Parks, Hector F. Angus, Douglas S. King and Rick L. Sharp

synergistic actions of insulin and muscle contractions stimulated GLUT4 translocation until counterregulatory hormones normalized blood glucose by ∼30 min into exercise ( Defronzo et al., 1981 ; Hargreaves et al., 1987 ). However, subsequent studies could not replicate the results, instead finding

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Xiaomin Sun, Zhen-Bo Cao, Kumpei Tanisawa, Satomi Oshima and Mitsuru Higuchi

football ( Guo et al., 2013 ; Murata et al., 2016 ; Selden et al., 2009 ) athletes, who often intentionally try to increase their body mass as a means of performance enhancement. Selden et al. ( 2009 ) reported that players from the National Football League have higher fasting glucose concentrations

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Whitney A. Welch, Scott J. Strath, Michael Brondino, Renee Walker and Ann M. Swartz

health effects of sedentary behavior has been performed, research in adults has shown that breaks from sedentary behavior are beneficial for glucose regulation. 9 , 10 These proposed breaks are generally accomplished by introducing some type of LPA such as standing or slow walking; range in duration

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Mynor Rodriguez-Hernandez, Jeffrey S. Martin, David D. Pascoe, Michael D. Roberts and Danielle W. Wadsworth

behavior, 7 , 14 , 18 positively affect markers of cardiometabolic diseases, 6 – 8 , 19 , 20 reduce glucose and insulin responses, 7 , 17 reduce lipid concentrations, 1 and improve positive indicators of health such as glucose stability. 14 The growing evidence shows beneficial effects on health

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Susan Sullivan Glenney, Derrick Paul Brockemer, Andy C. Ng, Michael A. Smolewski, Vladimir M. Smolgovskiy and Adam S. Lepley

effects of exercise training on cardiovascular health. Traditional serum biomarkers, such as total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein (LDL), high-density lipoprotein (HDL), glucose, C-reactive protein (CRP), insulin, and triglyceride levels, have been used to study the effects of exercise interventions

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Ilkka Heinonen, Jukka Kemppainen, Toshihiko Fujimoto, Juhani Knuuti and Kari K. Kalliokoski

metabolism of human bone marrow increases from a resting state to low-intensity exercise ( Heinonen et al., 2013a ). Furthermore, measurement of glucose uptake (GU) by 18 F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) in mouse bone at rest demonstrated that relative to other tissues, bone accumulated a significant fraction of

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Stephen P. Bailey, Julie Hibbard, Darrin La Forge, Madison Mitchell, Bart Roelands, G. Keith Harris and Stephen Folger

examined differences in exercise performance, comparing glucose and maltodextrin MR with artificial sweeteners in elite cyclists. These investigators found that cycle time-trial performance times were significantly improved when either 6.4% glucose or maltodextrin rinse was used prior to exercise. During