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Lauree M. Grubbs

Women, considering swimming as a form of exercise to lose weight, have been discouraged from doing so, since researchers suggest that swimming does not burn fat as efficiently as land exercise. The purpose of this study was to compare carbohydrate and fat utilization by women engaging in two different forms of exercise, walking and swimming, at the same intensity and duration. Subjects were 20 moderately trained female subjects, walkers (W) = 10 and swimmers (S) = 10; ages 18-40 years. Measurements of blood free fatty acids (FFA), glycerol, lactate, glucose, free fatty acid turnover (FFAT), respiratory quotient (RQ), and fat oxidation were made during 60 minutes of walking or swimming at the same exercise intensity. Multivariate analysis of variance determined no significant differences between groups in net energy expenditure (NEE), RQ, fat oxidation, blood FFA, glycerol, glucose, and FFAT(p > .05). There was a significant difference between groups in blood lactic acid levels (p < .01). Since it was found that swimming and walking at the same duration and intensity bum similar amounts of fat and carbohydrate as energy sources during exercise, women may find swimming to be a viable form of exercise for weight control.

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Gabrielle Ringenberg, Jill M. Maples and Rachel A. Tinius

clinically obese ( Flegal et al., 2016 ). In order to combat obesity, many health care providers recommend a healthy diet and exercise. There are many health-related benefits of exercise for those who are overweight and obese. These benefits include improvements in strength, blood lipid profiles, glucose

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Catrine Tudor-Locke and Elroy J. Aguiar

of the day (totaling 45 min over the course of the day) was equally or more effective than a single continuous bout of walking for 45 min in either the morning or afternoon. Furthermore, postprandial walking was the only condition to reduce 3-hr-postdinner glucose values, and it had a lasting effect

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David R. Bassett, Patty S. Freedson and Dinesh John

moderate-risk Class II medical devices (e.g., automated blood pressure monitors, blood glucose meters, and pulse oximeters; FDA News, 2015 ). Legislation was passed (H.R. 34—21st Century Cures Act) requiring these general wellness products to be low-risk and noninvasive. Since activity trackers are now

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Wonseok Jang, Yong Jae Ko, Daniel L. Wann and Daehwan Kim

of Personality, 65 ( 3 ), 529 – 565 . PubMed doi: 10.1111/j.1467-6494.1997.tb00326.x Smit , H.J. , Cotton , J.R. , Hughes , S.C. , & Rogers , P.J. ( 2004 ). Mood and cognitive performance effects of “energy” drink constituents: Caffeine, glucose and carbonation . Nutritional

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Tracey Covassin, Kyle M. Petit and Morgan Anderson

between potassium, sodium, and calcium ( Giza & Hovda, 2014 ). The brain is now in an energy crisis such that its large glucose demand cannot be met, resulting in a “depressed” state ( Giza & Hovda, 2014 ). This depressed state has been shown to last up to 7–10 days and has been associated with increased