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Liza Haqq, James McFarlane, Gudrun Dieberg and Neil Smart

Introduction:

Polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS) affects 18–22% women of reproductive age. We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis to quantify expected benefits of lifestyle (exercise and dietary) interventions on various clinical outcomes in PCOS.

Methods:

Potential studies were identified by conducting systematic search of PubMed, the Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature, and Cochrane controlled trials registry (1966 to April 2013) using key concepts of PCOS, exercise, dietary and lifestyle interventions.

Results:

Significant improvements were seen in women who received lifestyle intervention vs. usual care, in body composition parameters of body mass index, mean difference (MD) = −0.12 kg.m−2 (95% CI [−0.22, −0.03], p = .009), body mass MD = −3.42 kg (95% CI [−4.86, −1.99], p < .00001), waist circumference MD = −1.64 cm (95% CI [−2.09, −1.19], p < .00001), waist−hip ratio MD = −0.03 (95% CI [−0.05, −0.01], p = .0002), and body fat % MD = −1.71% (95% CI [−3.10, −0.32], p = .02). Insulin did not improve, MD = −1.21 pmol/L (95% CI [−3.06, −0.63], p = .20). Lipid profile did not improve, total cholesterol MD = −0.02 mmol/L (95% CI [−0.25, 0.21], p = .89). C-reactive protein was significantly lower, MD = −0.47 mmol/L (95% CI [−0.80, −0.15], p = .004). Significant improvements were also observed in cardiorespiratory fitness with exercise alone reducing resting heart rate, MD = −1.89 beats.min−1 (95% CI [−2.90, −0.88], p = .0002), and peak VO2, MD = 4.86 ml.kg−1.min−1 (95% CI [2.83, 6.88], p < .00001). Lifestyle therapy also improved, peak VO2 MD = 5.09 ml.kg−1.min−1 (95% CI [3.13, 7.05], p < .00001).

Conclusions:

Our analyses suggest lifestyle intervention is optimal for improving body composition and cardiorespiratory fitness in women with PCOS.

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Emma L. Sweeney, Daniel J. Peart, Irene Kyza, Thomas Harkes, Jason G. Ellis and Ian H. Walshe

criteria included shift workers; regular travel across time zones (>3 times a year) or in the past 4 weeks; presence of any disorders which may influence glycemic control (such as diabetes) or sleep (such as obstructive sleep apnea); current or previous medication in the past year which may have impacted

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Llion A. Roberts, Johnpaul Caia, Lachlan P. James, Tannath J. Scott and Vincent G. Kelly

. Enhanced external counterpulsation (EECP) improves biomarkers of glycemic control in patients with non-insulin-dependent type II diabetes mellitus for up to 3 months following treatment . Acta Diabetol . 2016 ; 53 ( 5 ): 745 – 752 . PubMed ID: 27179825 doi:10.1007/s00592-016-0866-9 27179825 10.1007/s

Open access

variability, was less than 5 for the first 9.5 h, which indicated good glycemic control (M-value < 5.0) in both runners. On the other hand, rapid rise and falls, outliners of M-value were frequently observed in the last quarter of the race in both runners. These findings suggest that modest glycemic control

Open access

Christopher C. Webster, Kathryn M. van Boom, Nur Armino, Kate Larmuth, Timothy D. Noakes, James A. Smith and Tertius A. Kohn

evaluates whole-body glycemic control, which is regulated by the interplay between the rate of glucose appearance, glucose clearance, and endogenous glucose production. Glucose clearance rate at rest is increased when insulin binds to its receptor, activating a cascade of events that leads to the