support the development of self-regulatory and self-management skills, such as strategic planning, goal setting, and self-monitoring ( Dunning & Giallo, 2012 ). Another potential explanation for physical exertion being rated the highest PA barrier by both age groups, and being rated significantly higher
Nicola Brown and Yasmin Bowmer
Psychological skills such as goal setting, imagery, relaxation and self-talk have been used in performance enhancement, emotional regulation, and increasing one’s confidence and/or motivation in sport. These skills can also be applied with athletes during recovery from injury in the rehabilitation setting or in preseason meetings for preventing injury. Research on psychological skill use with athletes has shown that such skills have helped reduce negative psychological outcomes, improve coping skills, and reduce reinjury anxiety (Evans & Hardy, 2002; Johnson, 2000; Mankad & Gordon, 2010). Although research has been limited in psychological skill implementation with injured athletes, these skills can be used when working with injured athletes or in the prevention of injury. Injured athletes may use psychological skills such as setting realistic goals in coming back from injury, imagery to facilitate rehabilitation, and relaxation techniques to deal with pain management. In prevention of injury, the focus is on factors that put an individual at-risk for injury. Thus, teaching strategies of goal setting, imagery, relaxation techniques, and attention/focus can be instrumental in preparing athletes for a healthy season.
Rikki A. Cannioto
Despite much research investigating physical activity (PA) barriers for American women, the PA barriers experienced by overweight and obese working women remain largely unexamined. This preliminary investigation assessed the PA barriers, behaviors, and beliefs of 40 overweight/obese women with full-time desk jobs for the subsequent development and implementation of a tailored “healthy weight” wellness program. Based on qualitative and quantitative data analysis, the majority of participants weren’t sufficiently active, citing motivation and time as their biggest perceived barriers. Statistically significant relationships were identified between BMI and barrier numbers, PA levels, PA enjoyment, and PA importance; as well as between PA levels and barrier numbers, PA enjoyment, and PA importance. An effective PA intervention should emphasize 300 minutes of PA a week, while incorporating evidence-based behavioral strategies (i.e., goal setting, self-monitoring, contingency management, social support, stimulus control, and cognitive restructuring) that have been proven to decrease barriers and increase PA adherence among overweight and obese individuals.
Melanie M. Adams and Diane L. Gill
Even with adequate levels of physical activity, sedentary behavior contributes to cardiovascular disease and type 2 diabetes. Reducing sedentary behavior through increased daily movements, not solely exercise, can reduce health risks; particularly for women who are inactive and overweight. This study examined an intervention to increase overweight women’s self-efficacy for reducing sedentary behavior. Volunteers (M age =58.5 yrs, M BMI =36) were waitlisted (n = 24) or enrolled in the intervention (n = 40), called On Our Feet, which combined face-to-face sessions and e-mail messages over 6 weeks. Physical activity and sedentary behavior were measured by accelerometer and self-report. A 4-item survey assessed self-efficacy. Process evaluations included participant ratings of intervention components and open-ended questions. Repeated-measures ANOVAs revealed no changes in accelerometer-determined physical activity or sedentary behavior, but a significant multivariate interaction was found for self-reported sitting and physical activity, F(3,60) = 3.65, p = .02. Intervention participants increased both light and moderate physical activity and both groups decreased sedentary behavior. Self-efficacy decreased for all at midpoint, but intervention recipients rebounded at post. A moderately strong relationship (r = .48, p = .01) between midpoint self-efficacy and reduced sedentary behavior was found. Participants rated the pedometer, intervention emails, and goal setting as effective and highly used. Open-ended responses pointed to barriers of required sitting and a need to match intervention components to women’s lives. Community-based interventions for reducing sedentary behavior have the potential to improve health. Ideas to enhance future interventions are discussed.
stories diverge. Each of them used their unique strengths to arrive at a place of greatness. Each connected deeply with the way they understood their strengths, and used their strengths to attain ultimate success in sport, yet, the way they approached goal setting, team relationships, and leadership roles
Matthew Lamont and Sheranne Fairley
et al., 2014 ). Alongside broader values of health and fitness which provide common ground for these collectives, the self-reinforcing values of goal-setting, challenging oneself, and celebrating one’s own and others’ achievements are core cultural markers of endurance sport social worlds. However
Chris G. Harwood and Sam N. Thrower
& McCaffrey, 1991 ). Empirical research has illustrated how child athletes as young as 10 years of age demonstrate a basic understanding of goal setting and imagery, while adolescent athletes (age 13–15 years) show a more advanced awareness of the most commonly used psychological strategies (i
Stephen Hills, Matthew Walker and Marlene Dixon
.e., social competence, conflict management, diversity awareness and attitudes, and bullying)? Research Question 2 : What effect did the Explorer program have on participant goal-setting? Research Question 3 : What effect did the Explorer program have on broader outcomes (i.e., sense of community in school, and
for students who plan to work in nonsport organizations. These chapters cover the strategic-planning process in nonprofit sport organizations and volunteer management and offer outstanding content on various elements of strategic planning, the importance of goal setting and performance management, and
Sharon E. Taverno Ross
calls led by a community health worker; and BMC + home, which included monthly 1-hr home visits by a community health worker. The BMC included brief 3- to 5-min sessions that employed motivational interviewing and goal setting surrounding key behavioral targets (i.e., decreasing sugary