This paper provides an overview of several university programs that have integrated various aspects of public health into their kinesiology instruction, research, and outreach efforts. The summaries of these programs provide the historical context that shows the various stages of transformation of their kinesiology and exercise science programs over the last century. Examples of specific academic structural designs and curricula are described, as well as the rationale the faculty used to justify these programs. In addition, advantages, opportunities, and challenges of this integration are highlighted.
Patty Freedson, David M. Buchner, Russ Pate, Brad Hatfield, Loretta DiPietro, David A. Dzewaltowski, Tim Gavin and Jeff Nessler
Jana L. Fogaca, Jack C. Watson II and Sam J. Zizzi
shadowing experiences. Although shadowing is a common practice in graduate programs, sport psychology researchers have not investigated its effectiveness in the past. In the present sample, students who had this experience appreciated their learning and demonstrated increased self-awareness and awareness of
Judy L. Van Raalte, Terry D. Brown, Britton W. Brewer, Joshua B. Avondoglio, Whitney M. Hartmann and Carrie B. Scherzer
The purpose of this research was to compile and evaluate the course offerings of sport psychology graduate programs with regard to the requirements for becoming a Certified Consultant, Association for the Advancement of Applied Sport Psychology (AAASP). Course offerings of 79 programs were identified via the on-line version of the College Catalogue Collections of the Career Guidance Foundation. Course descriptions in physical education/exereise science and psychology departments were examined to determine whether they fell within the AAASP certification criteria areas. Most of the schools evaluated did not offer courses in all 12 areas required for AAASP certification. Several programs offered courses in as few as six of the required areas. The results of this study suggest that the majority of graduate programs in applied sport psychology do not offer the necessary courses for students interested in pursuing AAASP certification.
Mark B. Andersen, Judy L. Van Raalte and Britton W. Brewer
To assess the supervisory skills of sport psychologists who are training future practitioners, the Sport Psychology Supervisory Skills Inventory (SPSSI) was mailed to 201 potential applied sport psychology supervisors. Supervisors were associated with graduate programs that offered applied sport psychology practica and/or internships, as identified in the Directory of Graduate Programs in Applied Sport Psychology (Sachs, Burke, & Salitsky, 1992). Supervisors rated themselves on 41 supervisory skills. The SPSSI was also mailed to 416 student members of AAASP, who were asked to rate their supervisors. There was a 35% return rate from supervisors and a 45% return rate from students. The findings suggest that supervised experience with athletes is limited for both supervisors and graduate students.
Erik K.M. Kjeldsen
This study utilized alumni of one sport management graduate program in an effort to investigate career paths in sport management. A representative sample of 126 alumni was selected from a population of 251 students who had graduated over a 10-year period. A total of 69 usable returns were received, for a response rate of 54.8%. Specific points during the professional, preparation period and during the working career were examined as benchmarks in the career path. The number of alumni maintaining jobs in the field at each benchmark shed light on career retention and on the factors contributing to attrition. The five benchmarks selected were entry into the graduate program, exit from the program, the internship, first job, and final job. Salary at each job level and satisfaction were measured in an effort to better understand the nature of a sport management career. The analysis was differentiated by sex and by the various subfields in the sport management profession.
Susan C. Brown
This study sought to identify significant predictors of success (a) in a graduate program of sport management at a major research institution in the United States and (b) in initial employment success. Regression analysis identified four significant predictors for success in the graduate program. The variables that produced a positive relationship with the dependent variable—final graduate grade point average—were age upon application, number of years of extracurricular activity involvement in undergraduate school, and undergraduate grade point average. The number of years in a full-time position in sport management upon application produced a significant negative relationship. Discriminant analysis was used to identify possible predictors of initial employment success identified as time from graduation to employment in a sport management position. However, no significant predictors were found.
Mark B. Andersen, Tim Aldridge, Jean M. Williams and Jim Taylor
This study expanded the work of Waite and Pettit (1993) and contacted 75 graduate programs for lists of names and addresses of students who graduated between 1989 and 1994 (N = 731). Doctoral (n = 92) and master (n = 162) graduates completed a tracking survey (modified from Waite & Pettit), reporting their demographics, educational backgrounds, current positions, incomes, initial and future career goals, and supervised experiences. The majority of doctoral graduates have found positions in academia/research, and most of the master graduates were in some sport or sport psychology-related job. The majority of the master and doctoral graduates, however, reported that finding paying sport psychology work was difficult, and many expressed at least moderate levels of frustration with the progress of their sport psychology careers. The information from this study could be useful for advising current and potential graduate students about career options after graduation.
Mark B. Andersen and Brian T. Williams-Rice
Supervision plays a central role in the training of sport psychologists, but little discussion of what constitutes adequate supervision of trainees and practitioners is available in the applied sport psychology literature. Broader issues of supervision, such as the training of students to become supervisors, metasupervision, and career-long collegial supervision are rarely discussed. This paper will present models of general supervision processes from training the neophyte to collegial supervision, derived primarily from clinical and counseling psychology. Included are supervising the delivery of performance-enhancement services, identifying trainee and client needs, helping the student understand transference and countertransference phenomena, and suggestions for examining the relationship between the supervisor and the supervisee. Suggestions for improving supervision include course work and/or practica in supervision processes for applied sport psychology graduate programs along with continuing education workshops at sport psychology conferences.
Daniel M. Landers
From 1950 to 1980, the field of sport psychology made significant strides. The developments were so rapid and so profound that this period can be called the “formative” years of the field. There was a tremendous expansion of the sport psychology literature, some of which constituted sustained contributions on a single research topic. Several textbooks and specialty books were published during this time period. Sport psychology journal articles expanded so much that journals devoted entirely to sport psychology research were created. The first graduate programs and research societies that focused more directly on sport psychology were also established. Applied sport psychology techniques, such as relaxation, imagery, and concentration training, were developed and made available to athletes. In addition to providing a description of the above-mentioned developments, some insights into dominant research methodology trends will be presented for the time periods of 1950 to 1965 and from 1966 to 1980.
Dennie R. Kelley, Patricia A. Beitel, Joy T. DeSensi and Mary Dale Blanton
The purpose of this paper is to present undergraduate and graduate sport management curricular models which provide a perspective that higher education sport management professionals can use to solve curricular problems described in the literature and to implement the NASPE/NASSM guidelines. The five sport management concentrations, which have similar objectives and services but occur in different settings or serve different clientele, include (a) Sport for Leisure/Recreation, (b) Sport and Athletics, (c) Sport Merchandising, (d) Hostelries/Travel, and (e) Recreation Agencies. The models (a) differentiate purposes, content, and entry-level positions for each degree level; (b) provide evidence for which concentrations need to be part of each curriculum; (c) define a professional core; (d) describe the concentration specialization requirements; (e) differentiate the culminating experiences for each degree; and (f) provide the distinctive characteristics of undergraduate and graduate programs.