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Karl M. Newell

can be made for standing, walking, running, and certain forms of object-interaction (prehension—reaching and grasping) to be the fundamental motor skills. They are fundamental not only because they are the basis of human movement in distinct classifications of action functions but also because they

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Casey M. Breslin and Mark Fischman

We tested the end-state comfort effect (ESCE) under varying reach extents (Experiment 1) and a balancing task (Experiment 2). We hypothesized that as reach extent increased, or when participants had to perform a simultaneous balancing task, sensitivity to end-state comfort would decrease. Participants were divided by height (taller or shorter than 160 cm) to understand the impact of reach extent. In Experiment 1, 86 participants grasped an overturned glass from a shelf, turned the glass upright, placed it on a counter, and then filled the glass with water. Shelf heights were 95, 145, and 168 cm above the floor. In Experiment 2, 82 participants climbed a stepstool, which posed a modest balance challenge, before grasping an overturned glass from a shelf 213.4 cm high. They then turned the glass upright and filled it with water. Three trials were performed. In each experiment, for individuals taller than 160 cm, a Cochran’s Q test revealed a majority used an awkward thumb-down grip to initially grasp the glass in all conditions. However, for participants shorter than 160 cm, sensitivity to end-state comfort decreased. This interaction suggests that the ESCE is influenced by both participant height and tasks requiring extreme reaches. Results are interpreted in context of a constraint hierarchy within a model of posture-based motion planning.

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Moslem Bahmani, Jed A. Diekfuss, Robabeh Rostami, Nasim Ataee and Farhad Ghadiri

grasping and manual aiming tasks (see Glover, 2004 for a review). However, to examine memory-guided movements that require the performer to hold-target related information in working memory while fixating on another object (e.g., target and golf ball), there has been a proliferation of research exploring

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Swati M. Surkar, Rashelle M. Hoffman, Brenda Davies, Regina Harbourne and Max J. Kurz

of presentation of visual cue to one of the six target positions of varying endpoint complexity to initiation of hand movement (planning phase), reaching for an object (movement sequence 1), followed by grasping and placing the object in one of six possible target positions (movement sequence 2). The

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Aleš Gába, Lukáš Rubín, Petr Badura, Eliška Roubalová, Erik Sigmund, Michal Kudláček, Dagmar Sigmundová, Jan Dygrýn and Zdenek Hamrik

. They are represented, for instance, by a relatively high number of children and youth participating in organized sports and/or PA programs, or generally PA-friendly setting (e.g., family, school, and built environment). Grasping these opportunities could improve current unsatisfactory state of overall

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John J. Reilly, Adrienne R. Hughes, Xanne Janssen, Kathryn R. Hesketh, Sonia Livingstone, Catherine Hill, Ruth Kipping, Catherine E. Draper, Anthony D. Okely and Anne Martin

.g., crawling. For infants not yet mobile, this includes at least 30 minutes of tummy time a spread throughout the day while awake (and other movements such as reaching and grasping, pushing and pulling) ; more is better.  • Minimising the amount of time restrained (e.g., in a pram or high chair). Screen time is

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Pai-Yun Cheng, Hsiao-Feng Chieh, Chien-Ju Lin, Hsiu-Yun Hsu, Jia-Jin J. Chen, Li-Chieh Kuo and Fong-Chin Su

-muscle function and activity restriction in elderly . International Journal of Rehabilitation Research, 32 ( 3 ), 213 – 218 . PubMed ID: 19293723 doi:10.1097/MRR.0b013e3283298226 10.1097/MRR.0b013e3283298226 Kashou , N.H. , Giacherio , B.M. , Nahhas , R.W. , & Jadcherla , S.R. ( 2016 ). Hand-grasping

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Dalia Mickeviciene, Renata Rutkauskaite, Dovile Valanciene, Diana Karanauskiene, Marius Brazaitis and Albertas Skurvydas

memories in older adults . Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience, 9 , 1 – 40 . doi:10.3389/fnagi.2017.00040 10.3389/fnagi.2017.00040 Spiegel , M.A. , Koester , D. , & Schack , T. ( 2013 ). The functional role of working memory in the (re) planning and execution of grasping movements . Journal of

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Peiyuan Wang, Frank J. Infurna and Sydney Y. Schaefer

). All cognitive, sensorimotor, and functional assessments were administered only one time in this study. Upper Extremity Motor Task The upper extremity motor task used in this study was a functional motor task involving reaching, grasping, and object manipulation (Figure  1 ). In this task, participants

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Sandra Silva-Santos, Amanda Santos, Michael Duncan, Susana Vale and Jorge Mota

, defined as gross motor skill competency, encompassing fundamental movement skills and motor coordination. Gross motor coordination is often specified in terms of proficiency in a variety of fundamental motor skills involving object control skills, such as grasping with the hand or striking a ball with the