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Wendy J. Brown and Toby Pavey

The Australian Longitudinal Study on Women’s Health (ALSWH) commenced in Australia in 1996 when researchers recruited approximately 40,000 women in three birth cohorts: 1973–1978, 1946–1951, and 1921–1926. Since then participants have completed surveys on a wide range of health issues, at approximately three-year intervals. This overview describes changes in physical activity (PA) over time in the mid-age and older ALSWH cohorts, and summarizes the findings of studies published to date on the determinants of PA, and its associated health outcomes in Australian women. The ALSWH data show a significant increase in PA during mid-age, and a rapid decline in activity levels when women are in their 80s. The study has demonstrated the importance of life stages and key life events as determinants of activity, the additional benefits of vigorous activity for mid-age women, and the health benefits of ‘only walking’ for older women. ALSWH researchers have also drawn attention to the benefits of activity in terms of a wide range of physical and mental health outcomes, as well as overall vitality and well-being. The data indicate that maintaining a high level of PA throughout mid and older age will not only reduce the risk of premature death, but also significantly extend the number of years of healthy life.

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Robert W. Motl and Rachel Bollaert

consequently increasing light physical activity, could improve other health outcomes such as biomarkers of cardiovascular disease in this population ( Manns et al., 2012 ). The focus on reducing sedentary behavior in persons with MS who have more severe disability could have an impact on mobility disability

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Michael Skipper and Leslie A. Meehan

Active transportation refers to modes of travel that incorporate physical activity as part of the trip. Examples include walking and bicycling, as well as transit, since walking or bicycling is typically required for transit station access and egress. The Nashville Area Metropolitan Planning Organization has recently restructured its regional transportation policies and programming priorities as part of the development of the 2035 Regional Transportation Plan to enable more active transportation by encouraging the implementation of infrastructure such as sidewalks, bikeways, and transit. The result is a significant increase in the number of federally-funded transportation projects in the greater Nashville region that provide opportunities for active transportation trips.

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Jennifer L. Copeland

contact among older adults, and social relationships are important predictors of a variety of health outcomes ( Pavela, 2015 ). Thus, functional outcomes are of particular importance to an older population. In a recent review we identified a clear association between sedentary time and physical function

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Sharon E. Taverno Ross

improved health outcomes in both children and adolescents, including better cardiometabolic health, cardiorespiratory and muscular fitness, bone health, and weight status or adiposity. Updated from the 2008 report, this newly released report says there is now strong evidence to indicate that physical

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Leah E. Robinson

-based guidelines into health practice through delivery and dissemination. The evaluation of the real-world health outcomes to population health is the goal of T4. Funding agencies are placing more emphasis on the impact of scientific inquiry and require researchers to address the impact of their research and how

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Buffie Longmire-Avital, Takudzwa Madzima and Elyse Bierut

). A potential contributing factor to these health outcome disparities may be the perception of risk. Hendley et al. ( 2011 ) found that Black women were more likely than White women to underestimate their weight, even though the Black women were more likely to be obese than the White women in the

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Chris Knoester and Theo Randolph

Research on the benefits of father involvement in children’s lives has become common ( Lamb & Lewis, 2010 ; Sarkadi et al., 2008 ). Similarly, a great deal of work has been done on the implications of sports and other physical activities for health outcomes ( Kahan & McKenzie, 2015 ; Project Play

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Kim Toffoletti, Catherine Palmer and Sumaya Samie

(Hayhurst, Sundstrom, & Arksey) and increasing female empowerment (Oxford & McLachlan; Seal & Sherry) on a global scale through sports participation; addressing discrimination experienced by trans, intersex and gender non-conforming people (Henne & Pape); improving women’s health outcomes through physical

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Dominic Malcolm

and management of SRCs ( Malcolm, 2009 , 2019 ). Studies of the lived experience of concussion have highlighted a particularly diverse range of health outcomes for which there is currently no clear explanation. For example, in contrast to Liston, McDowell, Malcolm, Scott, and Waddington ( 2018 ), who