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Diego Munguia-Izquierdo, Carmen Mayolas-Pi, Carlos Peñarrubia-Lozano, Federico Paris-Garcia, Javier Bueno-Antequera, Miguel Angel Oviedo-Caro and Alejandro Legaz-Arrese

, and health outcomes of amateur athletes performing intense training regimens during adulthood. It is unknown whether commencing structured training in adulthood in previously inactive individuals is sufficient or whether it is too late to induce the optimal beneficial adaptations in health outcomes

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Nathanial J. Kapsal, Theresa Dicke, Alexandre J.S. Morin, Diego Vasconcellos, Christophe Maïano, Jane Lee and Chris Lonsdale

the first quantitative synthesis of a broad range of health outcomes associated with physical activity among youth with intellectual disabilities. The purpose of this review was to synthesize the existing research related to the physical health and psychosocial health outcomes of physical activity for

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Katie M. Heinrich, Jay Maddock and Adrian Bauman

Background:

Despite clear health benefits of physical activity, previous research has been limited in linking knowledge of physical activity recommendations to actual behavior.

Methods:

Using Expectancy Theory, we examined whether an individual’s health outcome expectancies from physical activity might provide the missing link between knowledge and behavior. With data from a cross-sectional survey, we assessed differences between how much moderate physical activity people thought they needed for health benefits compared with what they thought experts recommended and the relationship of these differences to physical activity behaviors.

Results:

Our hypothesis that people with positive health outcome expectancies would report more minutes of physical activity than those with neutral or negative health outcome expectancies was supported for all self-reported physical activity behaviors (P < .001).

Conclusions:

It appears that the health outcome expectancy of needing more physical activity than recommended by experts is correlated with achieving more physical activity, regardless of type. Future research should address health outcome expectancies as a way to impact physical activity.

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I-Min Lee, Eric J. Shiroma, Kelly R. Evenson, Masamitsu Kamada, Andrea Z. LaCroix and Julie E. Buring

-assessed physical activity and sedentary behavior in a large cohort of women participating in the Women’s Health Study, who are being followed longitudinally for long-term health outcomes. In this article, we describe the methodology for accelerometer data collection and reduction, as well as expand on previously

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Alessandra Madia Mantovani, Scott Duncan, Jamile Sanches Codogno, Manoel Carlos Spiguel Lima and Rômulo Araújo Fernandes

Background:

Physical activity level is an important tool to identify individuals predisposed to developing chronic diseases, which represent a major concern worldwide.

Objective:

To identify correlates of daily step counts measured using pedometers, as well as analyze the associations between health outcomes and 3 different amounts of daily physical activity.

Methods:

The sample comprised 278 participants (126 men and 153 women) with a mean age of 46.51 ± 9.02 years. Physical activity was assessed using pedometers for 7 consecutive days, and 3 amounts of daily physical activity were considered: ≥10,000 steps/day, ≥7500 steps/day, and <5000 steps/day. Sleep quality was assessed through a questionnaire, and dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry was used to measure body fat. Sociodemographic and anthropometric data were also collected.

Results:

The percentages of adults achieving at least 10,000 and 7500 steps/day on a minimum of 5 days of the evaluated week were 12.9% and 30.9%, respectively. Adults who reached ≥7500 steps/day had a lower likelihood of being obese (odds ratio [OR] = 0.38, 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.17–0.85) and reporting worse sleep quality (OR = 0.58, 95% CI, 0.34–0.99). Adults who reached <5000 steps/day had a higher likelihood of reporting worse sleep quality (OR = 2.11, 95% CI, 1.17–3.82).

Conclusion:

Physical activity in adulthood, as measured by pedometer, constituted a behavior related to lower adiposity and better sleep quality.

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Faye Prior, Margaret Coffey, Anna Robins and Penny Cook

evidence base for the efficacy of ERSs is comparably small and inconclusive, 9 with further research required to understand which ERSs work, for whom and why. 6 Of the existing research, an area of focus has been the impact of participation on self-reported PA levels and health outcomes. To date

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Yanping Duan, Walter Brehm, Petra Wagner, Pak-Kwong Chung, Sebastian Graf, Ru Zhang and Gangyan Si

Background:

A successful transition from late adolescence to adulthood is essential. Physical activity (PA) can support this process and lead to positive health outcomes. The change in PA from inactive to active stages is influenced by psychosocial correlates, and as such, this study tested the relationships among psychosocial correlates, stages of change for PA and health outcomes in university students from Hong Kong (n = 404) and Germany (n = 366).

Methods:

The questionnaire contained (1) PA and stages of change; (2) 10 psychosocial correlates including outcome expectations, affective attitude, barriers, self-efficacy, body-concept, plans, intrinsic motivation, activity emotions, assessment of activity situation, and social support; and (3) 5 health outcomes, including fitness, subjective well-being, health satisfaction, physical complaints, and BMI.

Results:

Barriers and intrinsic motivation were the critical psychosocial variables related to stages of change. Specific planning was more important for Hong Kong students’ stage progression within inactive stages. Competitive or enjoyable PA programs were more effective for male students moving from inactive to active stages. The link between stages of change for PA and health outcomes (ie, fitness, health satisfaction) was well established.

Conclusion:

Public health researchers should conduct effective psychosocial interventions that motivate young adults to engage in PA for positive health outcomes.

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Melissa Bopp, Christopher Bopp and Megan Schuchert

Background:

Active transportation (AT) has been associated with positive health outcomes, yet limited research has addressed this with college students, a population at-risk for inactivity. The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between AT behavior and objectively measured fitness outcomes.

Methods:

A volunteer, convenience sample (n = 299) of college students from a large northeastern university completed a survey about their AT habits to and on campus and psychosocial constructs related to AT and participated in a laboratory-based fitness assessment (cardiovascular endurance, muscular strength and endurance, flexibility, body composition).Off-campus students were dichotomized as nonactive (0−1 AT trips/day) or active travelers (> 1 AT trips/day) to campus; t-tests compared nonactive and active travelers for psychosocial and fitness variables.

Results:

Students were 56.3% male, 79.2% non-Hispanic White, and primarily living off-campus (87%). Most students (n = 177, 59.2%) reported active travel between classes. Off-campus students were primarily active travelers (76.1%). Active travelers to campus had greater cardiovascular fitness (P = .005), were more flexible (P = .006) and had lower systolic blood pressure (P = .05) compared with nonactive travelers.

Conclusion:

This study documents a relationship between AT behavior and objectively measured fitness among college students and provides a rationale for targeting this behavior as a method for improving health outcomes.

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Sarah Edmunds, Denise Roche and Gareth Stratton

Background:

The current study objectively assessed physical activity (PA) levels and patterns in children and adolescents with type 1 diabetes and compared the metabolic and physiologic health profiles of those achieving and those not achieving the current recommendation of 60 minutes a day (minutes·D−1) of at least moderate intensity PA.

Method:

37 children and adolescents (20 boys, 17 girls) aged 12.7 ± 2.1 years (mean ± SD), disease duration 5.9 ± 3.0 years participated. PA was assessed using heart rate monitoring. Peak VO2, BMI, sum of 5 skinfolds, HbA1c, and daily insulin dosage were also determined.

Results:

Mean accumulated time in moderate-to-vigorous intensity PA was 53.6 ± 31.4 minutes·D−1. Levels of vigorous-intensity PA were low, mean 8.3 ± 10.2 minutes·D−1. When controlling for age, no differences in metabolic or physiologic health outcomes were evident between those individuals achieving, and those not achieving, 60 minutes·D−1 of moderate-to-vigorous intensity PA. PA predominantly occurred in short bouts lasting 5 minutes or less.

Conclusion:

The efficacy of accumulating 60 minutes·D−1 of moderate-to-vigorous intensity PA, in the form of short duration, intermittent bouts of largely unplanned PA, to promote health gains in children and adolescents with type 1 diabetes is questionable.

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Wendy J. Brown and Toby Pavey

The Australian Longitudinal Study on Women’s Health (ALSWH) commenced in Australia in 1996 when researchers recruited approximately 40,000 women in three birth cohorts: 1973–1978, 1946–1951, and 1921–1926. Since then participants have completed surveys on a wide range of health issues, at approximately three-year intervals. This overview describes changes in physical activity (PA) over time in the mid-age and older ALSWH cohorts, and summarizes the findings of studies published to date on the determinants of PA, and its associated health outcomes in Australian women. The ALSWH data show a significant increase in PA during mid-age, and a rapid decline in activity levels when women are in their 80s. The study has demonstrated the importance of life stages and key life events as determinants of activity, the additional benefits of vigorous activity for mid-age women, and the health benefits of ‘only walking’ for older women. ALSWH researchers have also drawn attention to the benefits of activity in terms of a wide range of physical and mental health outcomes, as well as overall vitality and well-being. The data indicate that maintaining a high level of PA throughout mid and older age will not only reduce the risk of premature death, but also significantly extend the number of years of healthy life.