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Alison R. Snyder, Jessica C. Martinez, R. Curtis Bay, John T. Parsons, Eric L. Sauers and Tamara C. Valovich McLeod

Context:

Patient-oriented outcome measures such as the Medical Outcomes Short Form (SF-36) and the Pediatric Outcomes Data Collection Instrument (PODCI) are important tools for determining the impact of events like sport-related injury on health-related quality of life (HRQoL). Unfortunately, there are no published studies using these instruments that compare adolescent athletes with their nonathlete peers, making interpretations of these measures in this population difficult.

Objective:

To compare HRQoL in adolescent athletes and nonathletes using 2 common instruments.

Design:

Cross-sectional.

Setting:

7 high schools.

Participants:

219 athletes and 106 nonathletes.

Intervention:

None.

Main Outcome Measures:

The SF-36 and the PODCI were completed in a counterbalanced manner during 1 session. Dependent variables included the 8 subscale and 2 composite scores of the SF-36 and the 5 subscale scores and 1 global score of the PODCI.

Results:

On the SF-36, athletes reported higher scores on the physical function, general health, social functioning, and mental health subscales and the mental composite score and lower scores on the bodily pain subscale than nonathletes. On the PODCI, athletes reported higher scores on the sport and physical function and happiness subscales and lower scores on the pain/comfort subscale.

Conclusions:

Athletes reported higher scores on a number of SF-36 and PODCI subscales related to mental, emotional, and physical well-being than nonathletes. Our findings suggest that athletic involvement may be a benefit to the overall health status of adolescents and imply that athletes may be a distinct adolescent group requiring their own normative values when using the SF-36 and PODCI.

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Alain Varray and Alain Varray

The aim of this paper is to show how pertinent pathophysiological bases have been built for physical activity prescription for individuals with obstructive pulmonary disease (asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease). The pathophysiological bases were constructed by taking into account exercise mismatching, which was analyzed in terms of both short- and long-term impact on disease outcome. Specific exercise adaptations based on a keen understanding of the underlying physiological processes provided the key to an adapted intervention with well-defined exercise program aims. The results that were achieved are striking, and one might conclude that sometimes exercise is simply the best way to improve the general well-being of individuals with chronic disease. Since this is a major concern for health professionals and chronically ill individuals, physical activity offers a means to rise to this challenge.

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Orges Lena, Jasemin Todri, Ardita Todri, José Luis Martínez Gil and Maria Gomez Gallego

measured the physical disability. High levels of disability are reflected by great numbers on a 24-point scale; and (5) the Health Status Questionnaire measured the general health conditions. Concretely, the physical component (physical score) and the mental component (mental score) were evaluated. 20 The

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Ashley L. Santo, Melissa L. Race and Elizabeth F. Teel

clinical question they addressed. The patient or participant sample (number, sex, age, and health status), study design, instrumentation, or intervention used, and main results were extracted from each article. Means and SDs for NPC break measurements were obtained if available. Meta-analyses were not

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John T. Parsons and Alison R. Snyder

Health-related quality of life (HRQOL) is a broad, multidimensional concept that refers to a synthesis of several health domains including the physical, psychological, and social domains, all of which are affected by individual experiences, expectations, beliefs, and perceptions. HRQOL also shares a well-established connection with contemporary disablement models, which enhances its utility for identifying individual experience, expectations, and values, which can also influence the way a person views his or her health status. However, the routine evaluation of HRQOL in clinical research and patient care in the field of sport rehabilitation remains limited. HRQOL has implications for both athletes who suffer sport-related injury (SRI) and those who care for them. The purpose of this article is to help clinicians and researchers understand HRQOL as a primary outcome in sport rehabilitation. First, the article provides a definition of HRQOL and explains its relationship to contemporary disablement models. Next, research demonstrating that HRQOL is sensitive to both athletic participation and to SRI in athletes at both secondary school and college levels is reviewed. Finally, several important clinical tools that can be used to measure HRQOL by both clinicians and clinical researchers are presented. Criteria to be used in selecting these tools are also presented.

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Alison R. Snyder Valier, Elizabeth M. Swank, Kenneth C. Lam, Matthew L. Hansen and Tamara C. Valovich McLeod

Context:

Accurate assessment of health-related quality of life (HRQoL) is important for quality patient care. Evaluation of HRQoL typically occurs with patient self-report, but some instruments, such as the Pediatric Quality of Life Inventory (PedsQL), allow for proxy reporting. Limited information exists comparing patient and proxy reports of HRQoL after sport-related injury in adolescent athletes.

Objective:

To compare patient ratings and parent-proxy ratings of HRQoL in adolescent athletes who suffer musculoskeletal injuries requiring orthopedic consultation. The authors hypothesized poor agreement between patient and parent-proxy ratings of HRQoL.

Design:

Cross-sectional study.

Setting:

Orthopedic practice.

Patients:

Thirteen adolescent patients with a sport-related musculoskeletal injury requiring orthopedic consultation and 1 of their parents participated.

Interventions:

During the initial visit to the physician’s office, each patient was asked to complete the PedsQL, and the patient’s parent was asked to complete the parent-proxy version of the PedsQL.

Main Outcome Measurements:

The PedsQL is a pediatric generic outcome measure that consists of a total score and 4 subscale scores: physical, emotional, social, and school functioning. Means and standard deviations were calculated for all scores, and comparisons between patient-self report and parent-proxy ratings of HRQoL were made for the PedsQL total score and subscale scores using Pearson product–moment correlations (r).

Results:

Pearson product–moment correlations showed little to fair insignificant relationships between patient self-report and parent-proxy report of the PedsQL for the total score (r = −.1) and all subscales (range r = .1 to .4).

Conclusions:

Our results suggest a lack of agreement between patient and parent-proxy ratings of HRQoL, with patients rating their HRQoL lower than their parent. Patient perception of HRQoL may be more accurate than proxy report, which supports the use of patient-rated HRQoL in patient evaluation. Assessments of HRQoL made by proxies, even those close to the patient, may not represent patient health status.

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Barbara Resnick, Christopher D’Adamo, Michelle Shardell, Denise Orwig, William Hawkes, J. Richard Hebel, Justine Golden, Jay Magaziner, Sheryl Zimmerman and Janet Yu-Yahiro

The purpose of this study was to evaluate adherence to home-based exercise interventions among older women post hip fracture that were randomized to one of three exercise intervention groups or a routine care group. A total of 157 female hip fracture patients provided data for the intervention analysis. Factors evaluated baseline, 2, 6, and 12 months post hip fracture included demographic variables, adherence to treatment visits, self-efficacy, outcome expectations, stage of change for exercise, social support for exercise, mood, health status, pain, and fear of falling. The hypothesized model tested the direct and indirect impact of all study variables on adherence to exercise intervention sessions. Different factors appeared to influence adherence to visits across the recovery trajectory.

Open access

Viviane Ribeiro de Ávila, Teresa Bento, Wellington Gomes, José Leitão and Nelson Fortuna de Sousa

: functional capacity, physical aspect, bodily pain, general health status, vitality and energy, social aspects, emotional aspect, and mental health; and have been published in the English language. The exclusion criteria were: fractures (stress, pediatric, pathological, calcaneus, tibial pilon, diaphyseal of

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Rachel R. Kleis, Janet E. Simon, Michael Turner, Luzita I. Vela, Abbey C. Thomas and Phillip A. Gribble

exposes the need to examine health status following knee injury and surgery. However, the preinjury and presurgery status of the respondents’ health was not collected in this survey; something that future investigations likely should include. While this study was an initial exploration of these

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Monika Grygorowicz, Martyna Michałowska, Paulina Jurga, Tomasz Piontek, Honorata Jakubowska and Tomasz Kotwicki

was the main reason in the group of players who retired due to other factors (Table  3 ). Over 46% (n = 43) of all respondents stated that they would have liked to play longer, but their health problems had made it impossible. In 45% (n = 42) of athletes current health status influenced physical