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Alain Varray and Alain Varray

The aim of this paper is to show how pertinent pathophysiological bases have been built for physical activity prescription for individuals with obstructive pulmonary disease (asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease). The pathophysiological bases were constructed by taking into account exercise mismatching, which was analyzed in terms of both short- and long-term impact on disease outcome. Specific exercise adaptations based on a keen understanding of the underlying physiological processes provided the key to an adapted intervention with well-defined exercise program aims. The results that were achieved are striking, and one might conclude that sometimes exercise is simply the best way to improve the general well-being of individuals with chronic disease. Since this is a major concern for health professionals and chronically ill individuals, physical activity offers a means to rise to this challenge.

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Ida A. Heikura, Louise M. Burke, Dan Bergland, Arja L.T. Uusitalo, Antti A. Mero and Trent Stellingwerff

single training camp. Specifically, we aimed to confirm previous findings on the effects of length of exposure to hypoxia on change in Hbmass. However, we also wanted to investigate whether additional factors, including sex, precamp Hbmass, health status (illness/injuries), EA, sex hormone concentrations

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Blair Crewther, Konrad Witek, Paweł Draga, Piotr Zmijewski and Zbigniew Obmiński

physiological range for men, though raw data were not provided. Thus, while there is growing contention as to the efficacious nature of DAA, it is equally important to note that no harmful effects on athletic performance and health status have yet emerged. The form of DAA application is one consideration when

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Patrick J. O’Connor, Amanda L. Caravalho, Eric C. Freese and Kirk J. Cureton

Compounds found in the skins of grapes, including catechins, quercetin, and resveratrol, have been added to the diet of rodents and improved run time to exhaustion, fitness, and skeletal-muscle mitochondrial function. It is unknown if such effects occur in humans. The purpose of this experiment was to investigate whether 6 wk of daily grape consumption influenced maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max), work capacity, mood, perceived health status, inflammation, pain, and arm-function responses to a mild eccentric-exercise-induced arm-muscle injury. Forty recreationally active young adults were randomly assigned to consume a grape or placebo drink for 45 consecutive days. Before and after 42 d of supplementation, assessments were made of treadmill-running VO2max, work capacity (treadmill performance time), mood (Profile of Mood States), and perceived health status (SF-36 Health Survey). The day after posttreatment treadmill tests were completed, 18 high-intensity eccentric actions of the nondominant elbow flexors were performed. Arm-muscle inflammation, pain, and function (isometric strength and range of motion) were measured before and on 2 consecutive days after the eccentric exercise. Mixed-model ANOVA showed no significant effect of grape consumption on any of the outcomes. Six weeks of supplemental grape consumption by recreationally active young adults has no effect on VO2max, work capacity, mood, perceived health status, inflammation, pain, or physical-function responses to a mild injury induced by eccentric exercise.

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Jean Storlie

Athletes, like all people, have special nutritional needs based on their age, lifestyle, health status, level of physical activity, physical conditioning, and type of sport. The diets of many athletes are inadequate due to overly restrictive eating habits, nutrition misinformation, dietary fads, and/or obsession with weight and food. There is a growing need for sports nutrition counseling and education to help athletes improve their eating habits. However, before attempting to develop intervention strategies, sports nutritionists should assess the metabolic changes that take place during exercise and how these changes affect nutrition status. In addition, it is important to consider how psychosocial factors may influence an athlete's eating habits and his/her ability to make positive changes. A two-pronged model is introduced that can be used as a guide for the practitioner in interpreting relevant data and integrating physiological and psychological considerations for the design of individualized nutrition care plans for athletes.

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Barbara G. Wiita and Isabelle A. Stombaugh

The purpose of this study was to examine changes in nutrition knowledge, intakes, attitudes, and behaviors as well as health status of 22 female adolescent runners. Subjects completed questionnaires, interviews, and dietary analyses twice over a 3-year period. Over this time they experienced physical growth and improved athletic performance. Although their mean score on a test of basic and sports nutrition knowledge remained stable at 67%, after 3 years more runners correctly responded to statements about carbohydrate and fat. However, fewer responded correctly to statements regarding fluid intake and skipping meals. Although runners increased the percentage of calories consumed as carbohydrates, they significantly decreased their mean energy intake, thus lowering carbohydrate intake. They significantly lowered protein, calcium, potassium, and sodium intakes. The incidence of possible eating disorders increased, as did stress fractures. Over 3 years, nutrition knowledge did not improve, the quality of dietary intakes decreased, incidence of eating disorders and stress fractures increased, and menstrual irregularities remained high.

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Angela de Silva, Yasas Samarasinghe, Dhammika Senanayake and Pulani Lanerolle

Intake of dietary supplements is widespread among athletes in developed countries. This study evaluated the use of dietary supplements in athletes from a developing country. Dietary supplementation practices of 113 national-level athletes age 15–35 yr in Sri Lanka were assessed. All athletes from track-and-field, badminton, football, swimming, cycling, and karate squads who consented to participate in the study were administered an anonymous questionnaire by an interviewer. Information on number of supplements taken, frequency of use, nature of product, rationale, sources of advice, and reasons for taking supplements was obtained. Most athletes (94%) consumed dietary supplements. On average, 3.7 products/day were consumed. Footballers had significantly lower intake of supplements than other athletes (footballers 71%, others 98%; p < .05). They also consumed fewer products per day (footballers 0.7, others 3.5; p < .05). Popular supplements included multivitamins, vitamin E, calcium, energy foods and drinks, and creatine. Multiple supplement use was common, with 29% athletes taking 4 products/day. The athletes sought advice on supplement use from sports doctors (45%), team coaches (40%), or friends (15%). Most took supplements to improve performance (79%), and 19% claimed to take supplements to improve their overall health status. Dietary supplement use is widespread among national-level Sri Lankan athletes. The ad hoc use of supplements indicates that educational intervention in the sporting community is essential.

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Paula J. Ziegler, Judith A. Nelson and Satya S. Jonnalagadda

This study assessed the nutrient intake, body composition and biochemical indices of National Figure Skating Championship competitors. Four-day diet records, fasting blood samples, and anthropometric measurements were obtained 2 months after the National Championships from 41 figure skaters 11-18 years of age. Energy, carbohydrate, fat, dietary fiber and cholesterol intake were significantly lower compared to the NHANES III averages for adolescents in the U.S. In general, the mean intakes for most vitamins except vitamin D and E were above the recommended intake. But the athletes had lower intakes of vitamin E and B12, and higher intakes of vitamin C, and thiamin (females only) compared with NHANES III. The mean intakes of magnesium, zinc, and iodine by the male skaters were below the recommended levels, as were the mean intakes of calcium, iron, phosphorus, magnesium, and zinc by the female skaters. Also, the number of servings from vegetable, fruit, dairy, and meat groups were below the recommended levels. Biochemical indices of nutritional status were within normal limits for all skaters. But plasma electrolyte concentrations were indicative of potential dehydration status. The results suggest there is a need to develop dietary intervention and educational programs targeted at promoting optimal nutrient and fluid intakes by these athletes to maintain performance and improve long-term health status.

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Valéria Cristina Provenza Paschoal and Olga Maria Silverio Amancio

The purpose of this study was to evaluate the body composition, dietary intake, use of nutritional supplements, and biochemical status of 8 Brazilian male elite swimmers, aged 18–21 years, participants at a national swimming competition. Data from the athletes were obtained through a 4-day food record, a fasting blood sample, and anthropometric measurements. The anthropometric results showed that body composition was compatible with sport category. The dietary assessment showed an adequate ingestion of calories, vitamins, and mineral, with the exception of calcium, for which only half of the sample reached the recommendation. The results also indicated low carbohydrate and high protein and cholesterol intakes. Of the swimmers, 62.5% and 25% consumed synthetic aminoacids and antioxidants supplements, respectively. The biochemical indices of the nutritional status were within normal limits in all swimmers, with the exception of creatine-kinase, which was above the recommended level, indicating muscle degradation probably due to poor carbohydrate intake. In conclusion, the results suggest the importance of nutritional education to promote a balanced intake, provide all nutrients in optimal amounts, inhibit unnecessary ingestion of nutritional supplements, maintain ideal performance, and improve the swimmers’ health status.

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Joel C. Craddock, Yasmine C. Probst and Gregory E. Peoples

Humans consuming vegetarian-based diets are observed to have reduced relative risk for many chronic diseases. Similarly, regular physical activity has also been shown to assist in preventing, and reducing the severity of these conditions. Many people, including athletes, acknowledge these findings and are adopting a vegetarian-based diet to improve their health status. Furthermore, athletes are incorporating this approach with the specific aim of optimizing physical performance. To examine the evidence for the relationship between consuming a predominately vegetarian-based diet and improved physical performance, a systematic literature review was performed using the SCOPUS database. No date parameters were set. The keywords vegetarian OR vegan AND sport OR athlete OR training OR performance OR endurance were used to identify relevant literature. Included studies (i) directly compared a vegetarian-based diet to an omnivorous/mixed diet, (ii) directly assessed physical performance, not biomarkers of physical performance, and (iii) did not use supplementation emulating a vegetarian diet. Reference lists were hand searched for additional studies. Seven randomized controlled trials and one cross-sectional study met the inclusion criteria. No distinguished differences between vegetarian-based diets and omnivorous mixed diets were identified when physical performance was compared. Consuming a predominately vegetarian-based diet did not improve nor hinder performance in athletes. However, with only 8 studies identified, with substantial variability among the studies’ experimental designs, aims and outcomes, further research is warranted.