A meta-analysis was conducted to determine the effects of exercise on health-related physical fitness of individuals with an intellectual disability. The data came from 21 individual studies yielding 100 effect sizes (ESs). Large effects were demonstrated for muscular and cardiovascular endurance, moderate for muscular strength, and small for flexibility. No significant effects were found for body composition. Document source and program length influenced muscular and cardiovascular endurance outcomes, as published studies and longer programs produced larger ESs. In addition, program type influenced muscular strength (resistance programs produced larger ESs than combined programs), and program frequency influenced flexibility (higher frequency programs had larger ESs than lower frequency programs). It was concluded that additional research is needed to investigate means to improve body composition, flexibility, and muscular strength. Future studies should upgrade their standards for reporting appropriate statistical information and information related to sample and exercise prescription components.
Angelos K. Chanias, Greg Reid and Michael L. Hoover
Xiangli Gu, Senlin Chen and Xiaoxia Zhang
skills ( Silverman & Mercier, 2015 ), or reaching the healthy fitness zone (HFZ) of health-related physical fitness components ( Corbin, 2016 ). Comprehensive assessments that capture all of these areas simultaneously are currently lacking. The PE Metrics ™ was developed to assess the extent to which
Brendan T. O’ Keeffe, Ciaran MacDonncha, Kwok Ng and Alan E. Donnelly
). Therefore, little is known about teachers’ approaches to fitness testing in schools ( Cale et al., 2014 ), particularly in countries where a standardized approach to health-related physical fitness (HRPF) monitoring does not exist. Physical fitness is a complex and multifaceted construct that includes
Joseph P. Winnick and Francis X. Short
In this manuscript, the conceptual framework for the Brockport Physical Fitness Test (BPFT) is presented. The framework provides the basis for the selection of test items and standards to assess health-related physical fitness of youngsters with disabilities. The framework defines and describes the relationships among health, physical activity, and health-related physical fitness and presents the process used for personalizing health-related criterion-referenced physical fitness testing and assessment for youngsters with disabilities.
E. William Vogler
Twenty nine ostomy children (16 girls and 13 boys) with external openings in their urinary or intestinal tract for waste collection were assessed for fitness using the Health Related Physical Fitness test. The children, as a group, were discovered to be only in the 20th percentile in overall fitness when compared to the norm in the United States. Using guidelines established by the American Alliance for Health, Physical Education, Recreation and Dance, all 29 children were identified as candidates for an individualized adapted physical education program.
Jerome Quarterman, Geraldine Harris and Rose M. Chew
The present investigation examined how African American students rated the values of the basic instructional physical education activity program at two historically Black colleges and universities (HBCUs) based on a 24-item questionnaire. Descriptive data indicated that the students rated keeping in good health and physical condition as the most important value. A principal component factor analysis with varimax rotation revealed five underlying factors that appeared related to (a) physical self-efficacy, (b) a commitment to lifelong participation, (c) health-related physical fitness, (d) health/aesthetic benefits, and (e) social benefits. Physical self-efficacy appeared to be the most significant, accounting for the largest portion of the explained variance. African American female students placed more emphasis on health/aesthetic benefits, and African American male students placed emphasis on the social benefits. Overall, results of the present investigation generally appeared consistent with findings of earlier studies conducted at predominantly white Colleges and universities.
David C. Pizarro
This study investigated the reliability and suitability of the Health Related Physical Fitness Test for mainstreamed educable mentally handicapped (EMH) and trainable mentally handicapped (TMH) adolescents. A total of 126 12- to 15-year-old male and female nonhandicapped (NH), EMH, and TMH adolescents were administered the following tests: modified sit-ups, sit and reach, 880-yard run, and skinfold fat measure (triceps only). Reliability coefficients were obtained using an interclass correlation formula. Deviations in test performance were recorded on a checklist. Modified sit-ups, sit and reach, and skinfold fat measurement were determined to be reliable and suitable for use with mainstreamed EMH/TMH adolescents. Reliability scores for the 880-yard run were fair for NH, good for EMH, and excellent for TMH subjects. Procedural deviations in the 880-yard run by TMH adolescents raised questions about the suitability of this test for these subjects. Proper orientation, an allowance for practice, and the development of an appropriate test environment appeared to be important aspects of test preparation for adolescents functioning at a below normal intellectual level.
Joseph P. Winnick
Health-related criterion-referenced physical fitness has developed into an important domain for all youngsters in American schools. Although considered important for youngsters with or without disabilities, much less attention has been given to measuring and assessing health-related physical fitness of youngsters with disabilities. The Brockport Physical Fitness Test (BPFT) was developed as a healthrelated criterion- referenced test of fitness as a part of a federal grant entitled Project Target: Criterion-Referenced Physical Fitness Standards for Adolescents with Disabilities. This special issue of the Adapted Physical Activity Quarterly (APAQ) presents the conceptual framework for the BPFT and the technical information used as a basis for the selection of test items and standards associated with the test. Technical information is presented in separate articles covering aerobic functioning, body composition, muscular strength and endurance, and flexibility/range of motion. This first article introduces the reader to health-related fitness testing, Project Target, the BPFT, the general organization of information in this issue, and key contributors to Project Target and the development of the BPFT.
Yang Liu and Senlin Chen
-enhancing fitness activities to improve health-related physical fitness. Achieves levels of health-related criterion-referenced standards for fitness. PD#4 Achieves criterion-referenced standards. Evaluates current level of physical activity. Demonstrates the skill, knowledge, and desire to monitor and adjust
Ken R. Lodewyk
.1.3 Gao , Z. , Newton , M. , & Carson , R.L. ( 2008 ). Students’ motivation, physical activity levels, & health-related physical fitness in middle school physical education . Middle Grades Research Journal, 3 ( 4 ), 21 – 39 . Haerens , L. , Kirk , D. , Cardon , G. , De Bourdeaudhuij , I