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Eric Tsz-Chun Poon, John O’Reilly, Sinead Sheridan, Michelle Mingjing Cai and Stephen Heung-Sang Wong

Weight-making practices, regularly engaged in by horse racing jockeys, have been suggested to impair both physiological and mental health. This study aimed to assess bone health markers, nutritional intake, bone-specific physical activity (PA) habits, and quality of life of professional jockeys in Hong Kong (n = 14), with gender-, age-, and body mass index-matched controls (n = 14). Anthropometric measurements, serum hormonal biomarkers, bone mineral density, bone-specific PA habits, nutritional intake, and quality of life were assessed in all participants. The jockey group displayed significantly lower bone mineral density at both calcanei than the control group (left: 0.50 ± 0.06 vs. 0.63 ± 0.07 g/cm2; right: 0.51 ± 0.07 vs. 0.64 ± 0.10 g/cm2, both ps < .01). Thirteen of the 14 jockeys (93%) showed either osteopenia or osteoporosis in at least one of their calcanei. No significant difference in bone mineral density was detected for either forearm between the groups. The current bone-specific PA questionnaire score was lower in the jockey group than the control group (5.61 ± 1.82 vs. 8.27 ± 2.91, p < .05). Daily energy intake was lower in the jockeys than the controls (1,360 ± 515 vs. 1,985 ± 1,046 kcal/day, p < .01). No significant group difference was found for micronutrient intake assessed by the bone-specific food frequency questionnaire, blood hormonal markers, and quality of life scores. Our results revealed suboptimal bone conditions at calcanei and insufficient energy intake and bone-loading PAs among professional jockeys in Hong Kong compared with healthy age-, gender-, and body mass index-matched controls. Further research is warranted to examine the effect of improved bone-loading PAs and nutritional habits on the musculoskeletal health of professional jockeys.

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Brianna J. Stubbs, Pete J. Cox, Tom Kirk, Rhys D. Evans and Kieran Clarke

Declaration of Helsinki. Participants were healthy, aged 21–42 years, with no history of major illness and provided written informed consent with a confidential medical questionnaire prior to inclusion. Females were not pregnant or planning pregnancy. Anthropometric characteristics are shown in Table  1

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Amanda Zaleski, Beth Taylor, Braden Armstrong, Michael Puglisi, Priscilla Clarkson, Stuart Chipkin, Charles Michael White, Paul D. Thompson and Linda S. Pescatello

effort angina, but without stenosis ( Babur Guler et al., 2016 ). In a cross-sectional analysis, 50 women with cardiac syndrome X had lower 25(OH)D levels (9.8 ± 7.3 ng/ml) compared to healthy, age-matched controls (18.1 ± 7.9 ng/ml; p  < .001). Peak SBP to a GEST using the Bruce protocol was higher in

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Disa J. Smee, Anthony Walker, Ben Rattray, Julie A. Cooke, Ben G. Serpell and Kate L. Pumpa

/4364.0.55.001~2014-15~Main%20Features~Overweight%20and%20obesity~22 . Baumgartner , R.N. ( 2000 ). Body composition in healthy aging . Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, 904 ( 1 ), 437 – 448 . PubMed ID: 10865787 doi:10.1111/j.1749-6632.2000.tb06498.x 10.1111/j.1749-6632.2000.tb06498.x