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Stephanie J. Hanrahan

This paper presents general considerations for working with athletes with disabilities and the usefulness and possible modification of specific mental skills for those athletes. Common concerns for athletes with specific disabilities are discussed. Specific disabilities are considered under the headings of amputees, blind and visually impaired, cerebral palsy, deaf and hearing impaired, intellectual disabilities, and wheelchair. Arousal control, goal setting, attention/concentration, body awareness, imagery, self-confidence, and precompetition preparation are discussed in terms of disability-specific issues as well as suggestions for application.

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Paul D. Loprinzi and Elizabeth Crush


No study has comprehensively examined the independent and combined effects of sensory impairment, physical activity and balance on mortality risk, which was this study’s purpose.


Data from the population-based 2003–2004 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) was used, with follow-up through 2011. Physical activity was assessed via accelerometry. Balance was assessed via the Romberg test. Peripheral neuropathy was assessed objectively using a standard monofilament. Visual impairment was objectively assessed using an autorefractor. Hearing impairment was assessed via self-report. A 5-level index variable (higher score is worse) was calculated based on the participant’s degree of sensory impairment, dysfunctional balance and physical inactivity.


Among the 1658 participants (age 40–85 yrs), 228 died during the median follow-up period of 92 months. Hearing (Hazard Ratio [HR] = 1.18; P = .40), vision (HR = 1.17; P = .58) and peripheral neuropathy (HR = 1.06; P = .71) were not independently associated with all-cause mortality, but physical activity (HR = 0.97; P = .01) and functional balance (HR = 0.59; P = .03) were. Compared with those with an index score of 0, the HR (95% CI) for those with an index score of 1 to 3, respectively, were 1.20 (0.46–3.13), 2.63 (1.08–6.40) and 2.88 (1.36–6.06).


Physical activity and functional balance are independent contributors to survival.

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Juliana S. Oliveira, Leanne Hassett, Catherine Sherrington, Elisabeth Ramsay, Catherine Kirkham, Shona Manning and Anne Tiedemann

, hearing impairment, cancer, and gout. The 408 goals set by the 205 participants were classified into 20 different ICF categories, as shown in Table  2 . The most commonly nominated goals were related to recreation and leisure ( n  = 171, 42%), walking ( n  = 136, 33%), and weight maintenance functions ( n

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Xavier García-Massó, Adrià Marco-Ahulló, Israel Villarrasa-Sapiña, Julio Álvarez-Pitti and Jose-Luis Bermejo

. , & Van Waelvelde , H. ( 2011 ). Test-retest reliability of the assessment of postural stability in typically developing children and in hearing impaired children . Gait & Posture, 33 ( 4 ), 679 – 685 . PubMed ID: 21458269 doi:10.1016/j.gaitpost.2011.02.024 10.1016/j.gaitpost.2011

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Juliana Souza de Oliveira, Catherine Sherrington, Louise Rowling and Anne Tiedemann

disease/heart attack, congestive heart disease, hypertension, Parkinson’s disease, atrial fibrillation, stroke/transient ischemic attack, peripheral vascular disease, diabetes mellitus, upper gastrointestinal disease, depression, cognitive impairment, anxiety/panic disorder, visual impairment, hearing

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Xavier García-Massó, Isaac Estevan, Roberto Izquierdo-Herrera, Israel Villarrasa-Sapiña and Luis-Millan Gonzalez

: 23703740 doi:10.1002/pri.1549 10.1002/pri.1549 De Kegel , A. , Dhooge , I. , Cambier , D. , Baetens , T. , Palmans , T. , & Van Waelvelde , H. ( 2011 ). Test-retest reliability of the assessment of postural stability in typically developing children and in hearing impaired children . Gait

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Paige M. Watkins, Elissa Burton and Anne-Marie Hill

 = 2; mean age [ SD ] = 72.1 [8.6] years) with half living alone and the other half with their spouse or family. One peer was still working part time and the other seven were retired. One peer had a hearing impairment, but in general, the peers reported few health conditions. The peers had participated

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Barbara Resnick, Elizabeth Galik, Marie Boltz, Erin Vigne, Sarah Holmes, Steven Fix and Shijun Zhu

, gender, race, and cognitive impairment. Modifiable factors include the environment, medications, alcohol and recreational drug use, vision and hearing impairments, body mass index, nutritional status, and physical activity ( Bozat-Emre et al., 2015 ; Crow et al., 2018 ; Taylor et al., 2014

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Janet M. Boekhout, Brenda A.J. Berendsen, Denise A. Peels, Catherine A.W. Bolman and Lilian Lechner

advice reasons, a list of highly prevalent chronic diseases (e.g., arthritis, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, diabetes, other not mentioned chronic diseases) and other physical impairments that could limit mobility (e.g., visual or hearing impairments caused by old age) was provided to the

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Samantha M. Ross, Ellen Smit, Joonkoo Yun, Kathleen Bogart, Bridget Hatfield and Samuel W. Logan

students with hearing impairment . Ther Recreation J . 2005 ; 39 ( 3 ): 192 – 206 . 38. Augestad LB , Jiang L . Physical activity, physical fitness, and body composition among children and young adults with visual impairments: a systematic review . Br J Vis Impair . 2015 ; 33 ( 3 ): 167 – 182