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Emily Kroshus, Sara P.D. Chrisman, David Coppel and Stanley Herring

This study sought to identify factors that influence whether coaches support athletes struggling with depression and anxiety. Participants were U.S. public high school coaches who completed a written survey assessing their experiences, attitudes, and behaviors related to student-athlete mental health (n = 190 coaches, 92% response rate). Around two-thirds of coaches were concerned about mental health issues among the students they coached. They were more likely to extend help to a struggling athlete if they were aware of their school’s mental health plan and had greater confidence related to helping, including feeling confident in their ability to identify symptoms of mental health disorders. Mental health professionals, including sport psychologists who work with or consult with coaches, are well positioned to help provide coaches with the education necessary to be able to support and encourage care seeking by athletes who are struggling with anxiety or depression.

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Douglas Worthen and James K. Luiselli

Female high school athletes playing volleyball and soccer (N = 32) responded to a social validity questionnaire that inquired about their experiences with a sportfocused mindfulness training program. On average, the student-athletes rated most highly the effects of mindfulness training on emotional awareness and attention focusing, the contribution of mindfulness toward team play, the benefit of having coaches learn mindfulness skills, and the application of mindfulness to other sports. There were dissimilar ratings between the volleyball and soccer student-athletes concerning use of mindfulness when preparing for and during games. Most of the formal mindfulness practices taught during the training program were rated as being helpful to very helpful. We discuss factors influencing these findings and implications for mindfulness–sport performance research.

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Keitaro Kubo, Takanori Teshima, Norikazu Hirose and Naoya Tsunoda

The purpose of this study was to compare the morphological and mechanical properties of the human patellar tendon among elementary school children (prepubertal), junior high school students (pubertal), and adults. Twenty-one elementary school children, 18 junior high school students, and 22 adults participated in this study. The maximal strain, stiffness, Young’s modulus, hysteresis, and cross-sectional area of the patellar tendon were measured using ultrasonography. No significant difference was observed in the relative length (to thigh length) or cross-sectional area (to body mass2/3) of the patellar tendon among the three groups. Stiffness and Young’s modulus were significantly lower in elementary school children than in the other groups, while no significant differences were observed between junior high school students and adults. No significant differences were observed in maximal strain or hysteresis among the three groups. These results suggest that the material property (Young’s modulus) of the patellar tendons of elementary school children was lower than that of the other groups, whereas that of junior high school students was already similar to that of adults. In addition, no significant differences were observed in the extensibility (maximal strain) or viscosity (hysteresis) of the patellar tendon among the three groups.

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Revay O. Corbett, Tyler R. Keith and Jay Hertel

school athletes with a history of ankle sprain. Methods Participants A total of 25 high school student-athletes who had a history of ankle sprain and were cleared for full athletic participation volunteered (Table  1 ). The high school athletes were part of the soccer, lacrosse, and tennis teams and

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Gary L. Harrelson, Deidre Leaver-Dunn, A. Louise Fincher and James D. Leeper

The purpose of this study was to examine the inter- and intratester reliability of lower extremity circumference measurements obtained by two testers using the same tape measure and two different tape measures. Twenty-one male high school student-athletes participated in this study. Two testers measured lower extremity circumference at three sites using a standard flexible tape measure and a Lufkin tape measure with a Gulick spring-loaded handle attachment. Measurement sites were medial joint line, 20 cm above medial joint line, and 15 cm below medial joint line. Intraclass correlation coefficients were computed for inter- and intratester comparisons for each measuring device and each measurement site. Results indicated high reliability but a significant difference between the two tape measures. These findings indicate that the reliability of lower extremity circumference measurements is not influenced by tester experience and that the Lufkin tape measure with the Gulick handle attachment is the more accurate of the two tape measures.

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Michelle A. Sandrey and Jonathan G. Mitzel

Context:

Core training specifically for track and field athletes is vague, and it is not clear how it affects dynamic balance and core-endurance measures.

Objective:

To determine the effects of a 6-week core-stabilization-training program for high school track and field athletes on dynamic balance and core endurance.

Design:

Test–retest.

Setting:

High school in north central West Virginia.

Participants:

Thirteen healthy high school student athletes from 1 track and field team volunteered for the study.

Interventions:

Subjects completed pretesting 1 wk before data collection. They completed a 6-wk core-stabilization program designed specifically for track and field athletes. The program consisted of 3 levels with 6 exercises per level and lasted for 30 min each session 3 times per week. Subjects progressed to the next level at 2-wk intervals. After 6 wk, posttesting was conducted

Main Outcome Measures:

The subjects were evaluated using the Star Excursion Balance Test (SEBT) for posteromedial (PM), medial (M), and anteromedial (AM) directions; abdominal-fatigue test (AFT); back-extensor test (BET); and side-bridge test (SBT) for the right and left sides.

Results:

Posttest results significantly improved for all 3 directions of the SEBT (PM, M, and AM), AFT, BET, right SBT, and left SBT. Effect size was large for all variables except for PM and AM, where a moderate effect was noted. Minimal-detectable-change scores exceeded the error of the measurements for all dependent variables.

Conclusion:

After the 6-wk core-stabilization-training program, measures of the SEBT, AFT, BET, and SBT improved, thus advocating the use of this core-stabilization-training program for track and field athletes.

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Rebecca K. Lytle and Doug Collier

The purpose was to examine adapted physical education (APE) specialists’ perceptions about consultation as a delivery model for individuals with disabilities. Six APE specialists (4 female, 2 male) from California participated in this phenomenological study. Data came from in-depth individual interviews, field observations, researcher notes, and focus group interactions. Analysis revealed distinct categories related to consultation: definition, contextual factors, effectiveness (benefits, barriers, documentation), competency, training, and consultation model preferences. Consultation interactions varied greatly because of the dynamic nature of the educational environment. The use of consultation was more prevalent with middle and high school students. Adapted physical education consultation occurred on a continuum from proximal to distal, dependent on the degree of interaction between the APE specialist, the general education (GE) teacher, and the student. The effectiveness of consultation was dependent upon the GE teacher’s attitude and the APE specialist’s communication skills and competencies.

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Gary Allen, Kristy Smith, Brady Tripp, Jason Zaremski and Seth Smith

subpopulations. 3 While the numerous benefits of exercise are well-established, exercise also serves as a principal trigger for SCD. In high school student-athletes, the risk of SCD is nearly four times greater than for nonathletes. 13 The best estimate of the incidence of SCD in athletes with anomalous

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Christine C. Center, Samuel J. Wilkins, Ross Mathiasen and Adam B. Rosen

who was diagnosed with a SDH and underwent a decompressive craniectomy. Case Presentation Patient The patient, an 18-year-old male high school student (White, 1.80 m, 82.5 kg), and varsity football defensive end, was a healthy, active athlete with no prior history of significant head trauma. During

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Megan Elizabeth Evelyn Mormile, Jody L. Langdon and Tamerah Nicole Hunt

males on measures of learning and memory. 15 Limited research is available within high school students, especially in regards to gender. Risk of sport-related concussion has shown to be gender-specific, and needs to be considered in order to maximize both rate of recovery and benefits of overall