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John R. Sirard and Megan E. Slater

Background:

Accelerometer use in physical activity research has become increasingly popular but is prone to problems with missing data, which complicate the data reduction and analysis process. The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of hypothesized compliance strategies on improving compliance with wearing a physical activity accelerometer in high school students.

Methods:

Each of four local high schools was assigned to one of four compliance strategies: (1) receiving three phone calls, (2) completing a daily journal, (3) compensation contingent on number of complete (≥ 10 hours) days of data, and (4) control condition. Participants wore ActiGraph accelerometers for seven days to determine compliance and physical activity.

Results:

The contingent group had the highest level of compliance with 96% of the participants acquiring at least four of seven complete days of data. After controlling for grade level, school level percent minority students, and school level socioeconomic status (SES), the contingent group’s compliance remained significantly higher (P = .04) than the journal (85%), phone (72%), and control (70%) participants.

Conclusions:

The contingent compliance strategy improved the amount of time the students wore the monitor each day and, thus, the total number of days with ≥ 10 hours of data.

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Yvonne Kahlin, Suzanne Werner and Marie Alricsson

Background:

Physical activity and sport participation often decline during adolescence.

Aim:

To investigate if physical exercise during 6 months could lead to a positive behavior of physical activity, improve physical fitness and self-related health in physically inactive female high school students.

Methods:

A prospective cluster-randomized controlled intervention study included 104 physically inactive female high school students, 60 in an intervention group and 44 controls. At baseline there were no group differences regarding self-related health. The intervention group exercised at least once per week. A questionnaire and physical fitness tests were used for evaluation, at baseline and 6 months later.

Results:

The intervention group improved their self-related health compared with the controls (P = .012). When divided into a regular (n = 27) and an irregular training group (n = 33) the regular training group improved their self-related health compared with the controls, while the irregular training group did not differ from the other groups. Maximal oxygen consumption was improved in the intervention group compared with the controls (P < .001). No group differences were found in muscle strength and endurance.

Conclusion:

Physical exercise at least once per week during 6 months improved physical fitness (maximal oxygen consumption) and self-related health in physically inactive female high school students.

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MinKyoung Song, Dianna D. Carroll, Sarah M. Lee and Janet E. Fulton

Background:

The 2008 Physical Activity Guidelines recommend youth participate in a variety of physical activities; however, few nationally representative studies describe the types and variety of youth activity. This study assessed the most frequently reported types and variety of activities among U.S. high school students, and examined the association between variety and meeting the 2008 Guidelines for aerobic activity (aerobic guideline).

Methods:

We analyzed data on 8628 U.S. high school students in grades 9–12 from the 2010 National Youth Physical Activity and Nutrition Survey. Types of physical activity were assessed by identifying which activities each student reported in the past 7 days. Variety was assessed by the total number of different activities each student reported. Percentage (95% CI) of students who reported engaging in each activity was assessed. Logistic regression was used to examine the association between variety and meeting the aerobic guideline.

Results:

Walking was the most frequently reported activity among U.S. high school students. On average, students reported participating in 6 different activities. Variety was positively associated with meeting the aerobic guideline.

Conclusions:

These findings support encouraging youth to participate in many physical activities and may be useful for developing interventions that focus on the most prevalent activities.

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Zeynep Isgor and Lisa M. Powell

Background:

Environmental factors may play an important role in the determination of physical activity behaviors.

Methods:

This study used the Child Development Supplement of the Panel Study of Income Dynamics to examine the association between the availability of objectively measured commercial physical activity-related instruction facilities and weekly physical activity participation among high school students outside of school physical education classes. A Negative Binomial count model was used to examine the number of days of vigorous physical activity (at least 30 minutes/day) per week and a Probit model was used to examine the probability of frequent (4 or more days/week) vigorous physical activity participation.

Results:

The results indicated that an additional instruction school per 10,000 capita per 10 square miles was associated with an 8-percent increase in the weekly number of days of vigorous physical activity participation and a 4 percentage point increase in the likelihood of frequent physical activity participation for female adolescents only. By income, associations were larger for low- versus high-income female youths.

Conclusion:

Increased availability of local area physical activity-related instruction facilities may help to increase female high school students’ physical activity levels, particularly among low-income female students.

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Zewditu Demissie, Richard Lowry, Danice K. Eaton, Marci F. Hertz and Sarah M. Lee

Background:

This study investigated associations of violence-related behaviors with physical activity (PA)-related behaviors among U.S. high school students.

Methods:

Data from the 2009 national Youth Risk Behavior Survey, a cross-sectional survey of a nationally representative sample of 9th–12th grade students, were analyzed. Sex-stratified, adjusted odds ratios (aORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were estimated for associations between violence-related behaviors and being physically active for ≥ 60 minutes daily, sports participation, TV watching for ≥ 3 hours/day, and video game/computer use for ≥ 3 hours/day.

Results:

Among male students, at-school bullying victimization was negatively associated with daily PA (aOR: 0.72; 95% CI: 0.58–0.87) and sports participation; skipping school because of safety concerns was positively associated with video game/computer use (1.42; 1.01–2.00); and physical fighting was positively associated with daily PA. Among female students, atschool bullying victimization and skipping school because of safety concerns were both positively associated with video game/computer use (1.46; 1.19–1.79 and 1.60; 1.09–2.34, respectively), and physical fighting at school was negatively associated with sports participation and positively associated with TV watching.

Conclusions:

Bullying victimization emerged as a potentially important risk factor for insufficient PA. Schools should consider the role of violence in initiatives designed to promote PA.

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Andrew J. Martin, David V. Tipler, Herbert W. Marsh, Garry E. Richards and Melinda R. Williams

This study presents a new, multidimensional approach to physical activity motivation that is operationalized through four primary factors: adaptive cognitive dimensions, adaptive behavioral dimensions, impeding cognitive dimensions, and maladaptive behavioral dimensions. Among 171 Australian high school students, the study assessed the structure of this four-factor framework (a within-network construct validity approach) and also examined the relationships between motivation and three key correlates: flow in physical activity, physical self-concept, and physical activity level (a between-network construct validity approach). The four-factor framework demonstrated within-network validity in the form of reliable subscales and a sound factor structure. In terms of between-network validity, relationships between the adaptive behavioral and cognitive aspects of motivation and physical self-concept, flow, and activity levels were found to be positive and significant, whereas significant inverse relationships were found between impeding and maladaptive motivation dimensions and flow and physical self-concept. Additional analysis utilizing multiple-indicator multiple-cause (MIMIC) modeling showed that during earlier adolescence girls are more motivated than boys to engage in physical activity, but by later adolescence boys are more motivated to do so. Results are interpreted in terms of future directions for possible physical activity interventions aimed at increasing both the uptake and continuation of activity.

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Scott Pierce, Jedediah Blanton and Daniel Gould

SPPs and a state high school sporting body. Second, we outline the case of creating, developing, and launching an online course for high school student-athlete leadership development. We conclude with lessons learned and practical recommendations for SPPs who can use community engagement as a means to

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Kent A. Lorenz, Hans van der Mars, Pamela Hodges Kulinna, Barbara E. Ainsworth and Melbourne F. Hovell

The proportion of youth not accumulating the recommended amount of daily physical activity (PA) has increased over the past 30 years, 1 , 2 with trends reflecting reductions in PA and increases in sedentary behaviors. 3 Approximately a quarter of high school students participate in no PA, with

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Mauro Virgílio Gomes de Barros, Markus Vinicius Nahas, Pedro Curi Hallal, José Cazuza de Farias Júnior, Alex Antônio Florindo and Simone Storino Honda de Barros

Background:

We evaluated the effectiveness of a school-based intervention on the promotion of physical activity among high school students in Brazil: the Saude na Boa project.

Methods:

A school-based, randomized trial was carried out in 2 Brazilian cities: Recife (northeast) and Florianopolis (south). Ten schools in each city were matched by size and location, and randomized into intervention or control groups. The intervention included environmental/organizational changes, physical activity education, and personnel training and engagement. Students age 15 to 24 years were evaluated at baseline and 9 months later (end of school year).

Results:

Although similar at baseline, after the intervention, the control group reported significantly fewer d/wk accumulating 60 minutes+ moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) in comparison with the intervention group (2.6 versus 3.3, P < .001). The prevalence of inactivity (0 days per week) rose in the control and decreased in the intervention group. The odds ratio for engaging at least once per week in physical activity associated with the intervention was 1.83 (95% CI = 1.24–2.71) in the unadjusted analysis and 1.88 (95% CI = 1.27–2.79) after controlling for gender.

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Kelly Samara Silva, Adair da Silva Lopes, Carla Meneses Hardman, Luciana Gatto Azevedo Cabral, Shana Ginar da Silva and Markus Vinicius Nahas

Background:

Commuting reflects an important opportunity for youth to engage in physical activity. This study aimed to compare modes of commuting to school and to work and to identify sociodemographic factors associated with various modes of transportation.

Methods:

Epidemiologic study with a repeated cross-sectional design. Participants included high school students (15–19 years of age) from Santa Catarina state, Brazil, in 2001 (n = 5028) and 2011 (n = 6529). A questionnaire containing information on the type of transport used to commute to school and to work was administered.

Results:

Walking/bicycling and the use of the bus to commute to school and to work remained stable after a decade; however, the use of car/motorcycle to school (6.4% versus 12.6%) and to work (10.2% versus 19.7%) increased significantly. In both cases, females more frequently used buses, whereas males commuted to work by car/bus. Students from rural areas more commonly commuted to school by car/motorcycle, whereas those from urban areas traveled to work more by bus. There was a greater use of cars/motorcycles by young people from higher-income families.

Conclusions:

The use of cars/motorcycles to commute to school/work has almost doubled in the last decade. Sex, residential area and income were associated with passive commuting.