The purpose of this study was to examine the pedometer-measured physical activity levels of high school students (Grades 9–12). Comparisons were made between sexes, among grades, among groups based on level of participation in sport and physical education, and among groups based on levels of self-reported physical activity (based on questions from the National Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance System). Participants wore sealed pedometers for 4 consecutive school days. Results indicated no differences among days of monitoring but did show significant differences in mean steps per day between sexes, among grades, and among activity levels. Males took more steps per day than females did, and 10th graders took more steps than 12th graders did. Teens involved in sport and physical education took more steps than did those not involved. Teens who reported meeting both moderate and vigorous activity recommendations were most active, followed by teens meeting recommendations for moderate activity.
Bridgette E. Wilde, Charles B. Corbin and Guy C. Le Masurier
John R. Sirard and Megan E. Slater
Accelerometer use in physical activity research has become increasingly popular but is prone to problems with missing data, which complicate the data reduction and analysis process. The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of hypothesized compliance strategies on improving compliance with wearing a physical activity accelerometer in high school students.
Each of four local high schools was assigned to one of four compliance strategies: (1) receiving three phone calls, (2) completing a daily journal, (3) compensation contingent on number of complete (≥ 10 hours) days of data, and (4) control condition. Participants wore ActiGraph accelerometers for seven days to determine compliance and physical activity.
The contingent group had the highest level of compliance with 96% of the participants acquiring at least four of seven complete days of data. After controlling for grade level, school level percent minority students, and school level socioeconomic status (SES), the contingent group’s compliance remained significantly higher (P = .04) than the journal (85%), phone (72%), and control (70%) participants.
The contingent compliance strategy improved the amount of time the students wore the monitor each day and, thus, the total number of days with ≥ 10 hours of data.
John H. Kerr, Cecilia K. F. Au and Koenraad J. Lindner
As part of a sport and exercise participation questionnaire, samples of Hong Kong high school students (n = 1,496) and high school students entering university (n = 862) completed the Motivational Style Profile (MSP; 4). In addition, 1,493 high school and 848 university entrants completed the MSP-SE, a sport and exercise version of the MSP. Students also completed six extra items related to general life motivational orientations (LMOs) and one other item relating to the frequency of their sport and exercise participation. Based on their answers to this latter item, students were divided into inactive, active, and very active groups and their metamotivational profiles tested for differences. MANOVA techniques produced several significant differences among activity groups in metamotivational dominance and state balance dimensions. The results are presented, and then they are discussed in terms of their implications for sport and exercise provision in high school, university, and more general contexts.
Yvonne Kahlin, Suzanne Werner and Marie Alricsson
Physical activity and sport participation often decline during adolescence.
To investigate if physical exercise during 6 months could lead to a positive behavior of physical activity, improve physical fitness and self-related health in physically inactive female high school students.
A prospective cluster-randomized controlled intervention study included 104 physically inactive female high school students, 60 in an intervention group and 44 controls. At baseline there were no group differences regarding self-related health. The intervention group exercised at least once per week. A questionnaire and physical fitness tests were used for evaluation, at baseline and 6 months later.
The intervention group improved their self-related health compared with the controls (P = .012). When divided into a regular (n = 27) and an irregular training group (n = 33) the regular training group improved their self-related health compared with the controls, while the irregular training group did not differ from the other groups. Maximal oxygen consumption was improved in the intervention group compared with the controls (P < .001). No group differences were found in muscle strength and endurance.
Physical exercise at least once per week during 6 months improved physical fitness (maximal oxygen consumption) and self-related health in physically inactive female high school students.
MinKyoung Song, Dianna D. Carroll, Sarah M. Lee and Janet E. Fulton
The 2008 Physical Activity Guidelines recommend youth participate in a variety of physical activities; however, few nationally representative studies describe the types and variety of youth activity. This study assessed the most frequently reported types and variety of activities among U.S. high school students, and examined the association between variety and meeting the 2008 Guidelines for aerobic activity (aerobic guideline).
We analyzed data on 8628 U.S. high school students in grades 9–12 from the 2010 National Youth Physical Activity and Nutrition Survey. Types of physical activity were assessed by identifying which activities each student reported in the past 7 days. Variety was assessed by the total number of different activities each student reported. Percentage (95% CI) of students who reported engaging in each activity was assessed. Logistic regression was used to examine the association between variety and meeting the aerobic guideline.
Walking was the most frequently reported activity among U.S. high school students. On average, students reported participating in 6 different activities. Variety was positively associated with meeting the aerobic guideline.
These findings support encouraging youth to participate in many physical activities and may be useful for developing interventions that focus on the most prevalent activities.
Genevieve Fridlund Dunton, Audie A. Atienza, James Tscherne and Daniel Rodriguez
Research sought to identify combinations of risk and protective factors predicting change in physical activity (PA) over one year in high school students. Adolescents (N = 344; M = 15.7 years) participated in a longitudinal study with assessment of demographics, substance use/smoking exposure, height and weight, psychological factors, and PA in 10th and 11th grade. PA participation in 11th grade was greatest for adolescents who engaged in PA and had high sports competence (78%), and least for adolescents who did not engage in or enjoy PA (13%) in 10th grade. Identifying adolescent subgroups at risk for decreasing PA can inform the development of tailored interventions.
Settar Koçak, Mary B. Harris, Ayşe Kin İşler and Şeref Çiçek
This study examined physical activity level, sport participation, and parental education level in 333 female and 359 male Turkish junior high school students. Student’s physical activity level, sport participation, and parental education level were determined by a questionnaire with three sections. Independent samples t-test results revealed higher physical activity level and chi-square results indicated higher sport participation for boys when compared with girls. In addition significant negative correlations have been found between MET values and father and mother education for the total sample and for female students; however, negative correlations between MET values and parental education were not significant for boys.
Zeynep Isgor and Lisa M. Powell
Environmental factors may play an important role in the determination of physical activity behaviors.
This study used the Child Development Supplement of the Panel Study of Income Dynamics to examine the association between the availability of objectively measured commercial physical activity-related instruction facilities and weekly physical activity participation among high school students outside of school physical education classes. A Negative Binomial count model was used to examine the number of days of vigorous physical activity (at least 30 minutes/day) per week and a Probit model was used to examine the probability of frequent (4 or more days/week) vigorous physical activity participation.
The results indicated that an additional instruction school per 10,000 capita per 10 square miles was associated with an 8-percent increase in the weekly number of days of vigorous physical activity participation and a 4 percentage point increase in the likelihood of frequent physical activity participation for female adolescents only. By income, associations were larger for low- versus high-income female youths.
Increased availability of local area physical activity-related instruction facilities may help to increase female high school students’ physical activity levels, particularly among low-income female students.
Jennifer M. Beller and Sharon Kay Stoll
The purpose of this study was to analyze cognitive moral reasoning of high school student athletes and their nonathlete peers (n = 1,330). Students were evaluated with the Hahm-Beller Values Choice Inventory in the Sport Milieu. Nonathletes (NA) scored significantly higher (M = 67.75, SEM = 0.39) compared to team sport (TS) athletes (M = 62.10, SEM = 0.40). Females scored significantly higher (M = 68.78, SEM = 0.34) than males (M = 60.97, SEM = 0.38). Female NA (M = 69.54, SEM = 0.33) and female TS athletes (M = 67.50, SEM = 0.35) scored significantly different compared to male TS athletes (M = 59.21, SEM = 0.42). This study supports cognitive research data of collegiate athlete populations. Interscholastic athletes reason from a less consistent, impartial, and reflective moral reasoning than do nonathletes.
Zewditu Demissie, Richard Lowry, Danice K. Eaton, Marci F. Hertz and Sarah M. Lee
This study investigated associations of violence-related behaviors with physical activity (PA)-related behaviors among U.S. high school students.
Data from the 2009 national Youth Risk Behavior Survey, a cross-sectional survey of a nationally representative sample of 9th–12th grade students, were analyzed. Sex-stratified, adjusted odds ratios (aORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were estimated for associations between violence-related behaviors and being physically active for ≥ 60 minutes daily, sports participation, TV watching for ≥ 3 hours/day, and video game/computer use for ≥ 3 hours/day.
Among male students, at-school bullying victimization was negatively associated with daily PA (aOR: 0.72; 95% CI: 0.58–0.87) and sports participation; skipping school because of safety concerns was positively associated with video game/computer use (1.42; 1.01–2.00); and physical fighting was positively associated with daily PA. Among female students, atschool bullying victimization and skipping school because of safety concerns were both positively associated with video game/computer use (1.46; 1.19–1.79 and 1.60; 1.09–2.34, respectively), and physical fighting at school was negatively associated with sports participation and positively associated with TV watching.
Bullying victimization emerged as a potentially important risk factor for insufficient PA. Schools should consider the role of violence in initiatives designed to promote PA.