have reported beneficial effects on vascular function, the findings from the current study do not implicate a high-intensity exercise bout done prior to sitting to be any more beneficial than a moderate-intensity bout. As the current and prior studies employing this technique utilized a 3-hour bout of
Ryan S. Garten, Matthew C. Scott, Tiffany M. Zúñiga, Austin C. Hogwood, R. Carson Fralin and Jennifer Weggen
Leighton Jones, Costas I. Karageorghis and Panteleimon Ekkekakis
Theories suggest that external stimuli (e.g., auditory and visual) may be rendered ineffective in modulating attention when exercise intensity is high. We examined the effects of music and parkland video footage on psychological measures during and after stationary cycling at two intensities: 10% of maximal capacity below ventilatory threshold and 5% above. Participants (N = 34) were exposed to four conditions at each intensity: music only, video only, music and video, and control. Analyses revealed main effects of condition and exercise intensity for affective valence and perceived activation (p < .001), state attention (p < .05), and exercise enjoyment (p < .001). The music-only and music-and-video conditions led to the highest valence and enjoyment scores during and after exercise regardless of intensity. Findings indicate that attentional manipulations can exert a salient influence on affect and enjoyment even at intensities slightly above ventilatory threshold.
Guy El Hajj Boutros, José A. Morais and Antony D. Karelis
). Interestingly, a large population study with a 16-year follow-up showed that a single weekly session of high-intensity exercise (∼90% of maximal heart rate) for at least 30 min was sufficient in reducing the risk of cardiovascular death (ischemic heart disease and stroke) by 36% in the age group of 60–69 years
Robert A. Swoap, Nancy Norvell, James E. Graves and Michael L. Pollock
This study examined the psychological and physiological effects of a 26-week aerobic exercise program on a sample of sedentary older men (n = 26) and women (n = 23). Subjects were randomly assigned to either a high intensity exercise group (80−85% of maximal heart rate reserve), a moderate intensity exercise group (65−70% of maximal heart rate reserve), or a no-exercise control group. Results indicated that subjects in the high intensity exercise group exhibited significant increases in aerobic capacity compared to the moderate intensity group. Both exercising groups improved aerobic capacity and had significant decreases in body weight compared to the control group. Exercising subjects also reported significantly fewer symptoms of depression at the end of the program, but not fewer than the control group. Overall, increases in VO2max were associated with decreases in depression.
Megan E. O’Connell, Vanina Dal Bello-Haas, Margaret Crossley and Debra G. Morgan
Regular physical activity and exercise (PA&E) reduces cognitive aging, may delay dementia onset, and for persons with dementia, may slow progression and improve quality of life. Memory clinic patients and caregivers described their PA&E and completed the Older Persons’ Attitudes Toward Physical Activity and Exercise Questionnaire (OPAPAEQ). Caregivers and patients differed in their PA&E attitudes: patients were less likely to believe in the importance of PA&E for health promotion. PA&E attitudes were explored as predictors of self-reported exercise habits. Belief in the importance of high intensity exercise for health maintenance was the only variable that significantly predicted engagement in regular PA&E. Moreover, caregivers’ attitudes toward high intensity exercise predicted memory patients’ participation in PA&E. These findings may aid in development of exercise interventions for people with memory problems, and suggest that modification of specific attitudes toward exercise is an important component to ensure maximum participation and engagement in PA&E.
Darren C. Treasure and David M. Newbery
This study examined the relationship between self-efficacy, exercise intensity, and feeling states in a sedentary population during and following an acute bout of exercise. Sixty sedentary participants were randomly assigned to either a moderate-intensity (45-50% age predicted Heart Rate Reserve; HRR), high-intensity exercise (70-75% HRR) group, or a no-exercise attention control group. Participants in both exercise groups experienced changes in feeling states across the course of the exercise bout. The moderate-intensity group reported more positive and fewer negative feeling states both during and after exercise than the high-intensity group. Participants in both exercise conditions were significantly more positively engaged than the attention-control group postexercise. Consistent with social cognitive theory (Bandura, 1986, 1997), the reciprocal determined relationship between self-efficacy and feeling states was found to be strongest in the high intensity exercise condition.
The DOI for the article “Can High-Intensity Exercise Be More Pleasant? Attentional Dissociation Using Music and Video,” by Leighton Jones, Costas I. Karageorghis, and Panteleimon Ekkekakis, in the Journal of Sport and Exercise Psychology 36(5), was incorrectly printed. The correct DOI for this article is http://dx.doi.org/10.1123/jsep.2013-0251. The online version of this article has been corrected.
Charles J. Hardy and Robert G. McMerray
Ten Type A's and 10 Type B's, as measured by the student version of the JAS and the TASRI, exercised on a cycle ergometer for 20 minutes at light (40% V02max), moderate (60% V02max), and high (80% V02max) intensity exercise to determine A/B differences in psychophysiological responses. The norepinephrine and epinephrine responses of A/B types were similar at the light and moderate intensities. However, at the high intensity, norepmephrine response of Type A's was significantly greater than that of Type B's. Epinephrine responses (p=.ll) evidenced the same, albeit nonsignificant, trend. Oxygen uptake and heart rate data indicated that this amine difference was not a function of differential workloads, suggesting that Type A's had a greater psychophysiological reactivity to high intensity exercise than Type B's. Ratings of perceived exertion were similar for Type A's and B's at all intensities. However, a significant interaction between behavioral pattern and intensity emerged for affect. Interpretation of this interaction indicated that Type A's were more positive than B's at light and moderate intensities, yet at the high intensity exercise A's were more negative than B's. The results of this study suggest that A and B types do differ in their psychophysiological responses during exercise, with A's evidencing more positive affect during light and moderate intensities, yet more negative affect and greater neuroendocrine responses during high intensity exercise than B's.
Emily M. Haymes
Muscle glycogen is the primary source of energy during high intensity exercise. Increasing the carbohydrate content of the diet allows more glycogen to be stored. Some adolescent female athletes (gymnasts, dancers) do not consume adequate amounts of vitamin B6, folacin, and E. Many women have low dietary intakes of calcium and iron. Low calcium intake and physical inactivity are factors associated with the development of osteoporosis. Low iron intake is associated with the development of iron deficiency and anemia. Low ferritin levels (an index of body iron stores) are commonly observed in female athletes.
Walter R. Bixby, Thomas W. Spalding and Bradley D. Hatfield
Electroencephalographic (EEG) and self-report measures of affect were obtained from 27 participants (14 F, 13 M) before, during, and following 30 min of continuous exercise at low and high intensities to determine the respective temporal courses of affective response. Mood was measured via a visual analog mood scale (VAMS), the Positive and Negative Affect Schedules (PANAS-PA and -NA), and EEG hemispheric asymmetry as obtained from three electrode pairs: F4-F3, F8-F7, and P4-P3. Participants reported higher VAMS and lower PANAS-NA scores during low-intensity exercise relative to baseline, and the higher scores were maintained during recovery. In contrast, they reported lower scores on the VAMS during high-intensity exercise relative to baseline that were subsequently elevated during recovery. Also, during high-intensity exercise the PANAS-NA scores were similar to baseline, but they were lower during recovery. Both the VAMS and PANAS-NA scores observed after exercise were similar regardless of intensity. Additionally, participants had higher PANAS-PA and EEG hemispheric asymmetry scores (i.e., F8-F7) during exercise at both intensities relative to baseline, then reported values similar to baseline levels on cessation of work. The magnitude of change from baseline for the PANAS-PA and EEG scores during exercise was similar regardless of exercise intensity.