This study examines media images of sports public figures during 4 periods of modern Chinese history. Furthermore, an explanation is provided for each of the variables that have affected the media’s portrayal of sports public figures. As in most cultures and nations around the world, sports public figures are recognizable characters in modern Chinese culture. They have a significant impact on opinions regarding sports and society and have gained a pivotal role in the fabric of mainstream culture. Over the various historical periods in China, the country’s media have reported stories involving sports public figures differently. The descriptions contained in this study are reflections of the various political, economical, cultural, sports, and media climates during different time periods in China. The commercialization of sports and the rise of the media’s presence have influenced the pursuit of an all-encompassing image of Chinese sports public figures.
Jianjun Tang and Elizabeth A. Gregg
In this paper I view the history of kinesiology in America through the lens of a shifting academic landscape where physical culture and building acted upon each other to reflect emergent views concerning the nature of training in physical education and scientific developments around human movement. It is also an organizational history that has been largely lived in the gymnasium and the laboratory from its inception in the late nineteenth century to its current arrangements in the academy. Historians have referred to this in appropriately embodied terms as the head and the heart of physical education, and of course the impact of gender, class, and race was ever present. I conclude that the profession/discipline conundrum in kinesiology that has ebbed and flowed in the shifting spaces and carefully organized places of the academy has not gone away in the twenty-first century and that the complexities of today’s training require more fertile and flexible collaborative approaches in research, teaching, and professional training.
Pedestriennes, Marathoners, Ultramarathoners, and Others: Two Centuries of Women’s Endurance (1816-1996)
For two centuries, women and girls have performed extraordinary feats of endurance with limited notice. Women’s individual achievements have included walking for a month with less than 10 or 15 minutes continuous rest, walking and running more than 400 miles in six consecutive days, and defeating all men contestants in endurance competitions. Ideally, these achievements should have shattered the myths of female frailty and allowed more women to participate in and manage endurance events. However, women’s endurance has often been reduced, marginalized or exploited. Using post-modern historical analysis of 1000 printed sources, the author focuses on 19th century women’s professional endurance efforts, and also shows that marginalization and exploitation of women’s endurance continues into the 21st century.
Scholarly Commentary Sports Public Figures in China: An Historical Analysis of Media Images Jianjun Tang * Elizabeth A. Gregg * 6 2010 3 2 137 148 10.1123/ijsc.3.2.137 Research The Sports Confessional Richard C. Crepeau * 6 2010 3 2 149 150 10.1123/ijsc.3.2.149 Student Research Stadium
the motives and tactics of the major sport organizations in their presentation of history, as well as giving the historical information that sport thrives on. Chapter 3 of the book is an in-depth analysis of instant replay, with both an interesting historical analysis and a discussion of how it
Khirey B. Walker, Chad S. Seifried and Brian P. Soebbing
, J. , & Rueschemeyer , D. ( 2003 ). Comparative historical analysis in the social sciences . New York, NY : Cambridge University Press . 10.1017/CBO9780511803963 Martin , A. , Wright , E.M. , & Steiner , B. ( 2016 ). Formal controls, neighborhood disadvantage, and violent crime in U
Qingru Xu and Andrew C. Billings
.A. ( 2010 ). Sports public figures in China: An historical analysis of media images . International Journal of Sport Communication, 3 ( 2 ), 137 – 148 . doi:10.1123/ijsc.3.2.137 10.1123/ijsc.3.2.137 Tuchman , G. ( 1978 ). Making news: A study in the construction of reality . New York, NY : Free
Akira Asada and Yong Jae Ko
topic for other subdisciplines of sport management, such as sport marketing. Although it is beyond the scope of this study to conduct a historical analysis of its theoretical advancement, we discuss its brief overview to clarify the position of the current research in the literature. As individuals