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Irene Muir, Krista J. Munroe-Chandler and Todd Loughead

; Hanrahan, 1996 ; Monsma & Overby, 2004 ). One mental skill capable of influencing cognitive, behavioral, and affective outcomes in dancers is imagery. Imagery, which is described as the creation or recreation of an experience in one’s mind ( Vealey & Greenleaf, 2010 ), has been used by dancers to mentally

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Jonathan Rhodes, Jon May, Jackie Andrade and David Kavanagh

with an English professional soccer team to improve each of its team member’s grit through imagery-based motivational training. The concept of grit has been applied widely, from dropout rates at the United States Military Academy ( Duckworth & Quinn, 2009 ) to marriage ( Eskreis-Winkler, Shulman, Beal

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Kimberley L. Gammage, Craig R. Hall and Wendy M. Rodgers

Imagery plays important cognitive and motivational roles in many areas of life, including sport (Paivio, 1985) and exercise (Hausenblas, Hall, Rodgers, & Munroe, 1999). The purpose of the present paper was to examine how the cognitive and motivational roles of exercise imagery vary with gender, frequency of exercise, and activity type. Participants (n = 577) completed the Exercise Imagery Questionnaire (Hausenblas et al„ 1999) which measures appearance, energy, and technique imagery. Participants, regardless of gender, frequency of exercise, or activity type, used appearance imagery most frequently, followed by technique and energy, respectively. Men used significantly more technique imagery than women did, while women used significantly more appearance imagery than men did. In addition, high frequency exercisers (3 or more times per week) used all types of imagery more frequently than low frequency exercisers (2 or fewer times per week). Finally, imagery differences existed based on type of activity.

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Sandra E. Short, Jared M. Bruggeman, Scott G. Engel, Tracy L. Marback, Lori J. Wang, Anders Willadsen and Martin W. Short

This experiment examined the interaction between two imagery functions (Cognitive Specific, CS; and Motivation - General Mastery, MG-M) and two imagery directions (facilitative, debilitative) on self-efficacy and performance in golf putting. Eighty-three participants were randomly assigned to one of 7 conditions: (a) CS + facilitative imagery, (b) CS + debilitative imagery, (c) MG-M + facilitative imagery, (d) MG-M + debilitative imagery, (e) CS imagery only, (f) MG-M imagery only, (g) no imagery (stretching) control group. A 3 (imagery direction) X 3 (imagery function) X 2 (gender) ANCOVA with pretest scores used as the covariate was used. Results showed a main effect for performance; means were higher for the facilitative group compared to the debilitative group. For self-efficacy, there was a significant imagery direction by imagery function by gender interaction. These findings suggest imagery direction and imagery function can affect self-efficacy and performance and that males and females respond differently to imagery interventions.

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Paul R. Surburg

This article provides insights into the use of imagery procedures with special populations. After an overview of various imagery techniques that have been used to enhance motor performance with normal persons, studies dealing with the elderly, brain and spinal cord injuries, neoplasms, and persons with mental handicaps are discussed. Issues are addressed concerning the use of imagery techniques by the researcher and practitioner. The final section of this paper deals with possible applications of imagery techniques with special populations.

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Kate A.T. Eddy and Stephen D. Mellalieu

The purpose of this study was to investigate imagery experiences in performers with visual impairments. Structured, in-depth, qualitative interviews were conducted with six elite goalball athletes regarding the processing and use of mental images in training and competition. Interview transcripts were analyzed using deductive and inductive procedures and revealed four general dimensions describing the athletes’ uses of imagery. Participants reported using imagery for cognitive and motivational purposes in both training and competition. Imagery was also suggested to be utilized from an internal perspective with the processing of images derived from a range of modalities. The findings suggest that visual impairment does not restrict the ability to use mental imagery and that psychological interventions can be expanded to include the use of all the athletes’ sensory modalities.

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Sandra E. Short, Matthew Smiley and Lindsay Ross-Stewart

This study examined the relationship between coaching efficacy and imagery use. Eighty-nine coaches completed the Coaching Efficacy Scale and a modified version of the Sport Imagery Questionnaire. Results showed significant positive correlations among the coaching efficacy subscales and imagery functions. Regression analyses showed that the significant predictor for game strategy efficacy was CG imagery. Predictors for motivation efficacy included career record and MG-M imagery. MG-M imagery and total years of coaching were the significant predictors for total efficacy scores and character building efficacy. The only significant predictor for teaching technique efficacy was CS. The results replicate and extend the relationships found between efficacy and imagery for athletes and show that imagery also may be an effective strategy to build and maintain coaching efficacy.

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Craig R. Hall, Wendy M. Rodgers and Kathryn A. Barr

The use of imagery by athletes was assessed by administering a 37-item questionnaire to a sample of 381 male and female participants from six sports. The sample comprised competitors in the sports of football, ice hockey, soccer, squash, gymnastics, and figure skating. Athletes reported using imagery more in conjunction with competition than with practice. The motivational function of imagery was found to be important, but no substantial differences were evident between how athletes employ visual and kinesthetic imagery or how they use internal and external imagery perspectives. Athletes also indicated that they do not have very structured or regular imagery sessions. The level at which athletes were competing (recreational/house league, local competitive, provincial competitive, national/international competitive) was found to influence imagery use. The higher the competitive level, the more often the athletes reported using imagery in practice, in competition, and before an event.

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Dan Smith

With the emergence of sport imagery training programs, sport psychologists need to understand the various conditions that have been found to facilitate imagery practice. This manuscript focuses on these conditions including vividness and controllability, practice, attitude and expectation, previous experience, relaxed attention, and internal versus external imagery. The summary synthesizes key points, advocating that these points be stressed in future sport imagery research and programs.

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Kathleen A. Martin, Sandra E. Moritz and Craig R. Hall

Research examining imagery use by athletes is reviewed within the context of an applied model for sport. The model conceptualizes the sport situation, the type of imagery used, and imagery ability as factors that influence how imagery use can affect an athlete. Three broad categories of imagery effects are examined: (a) skill and strategy learning and performance, (b) cognitive modification, and (c) arousal and anxiety regulation. Recommendations are offered for the operationalization and measurement of constructs within the model, and suggestions are provided for how the model may guide future research and application.