Given the prevalence of inactivity among women, it is imperative to examine sources which may influence exercise behavior. Researchers have begun to examine the practical application of exercise imagery on involvement in physical activity (Giacobbi et al., 2003; Milne et al., 2008). Using the Applied Model of Imagery Use in Exercise (Munroe-Chandler & Gammage, 2005), imagery use, efficacy beliefs, and body image among female exercisers (N = 300) was investigated. Results revealed frequent use of exercise imagery, high efficacy beliefs, and positive body image cognitions among exercisers. Structural equation modeling revealed that efficacy beliefs did not mediate the relationship between imagery use and body image among a specific sample of female exercisers. However, the results do suggest that exercise imagery significantly predicts all four types of efficacy belief types (Efficacy Expectancy, Outcome Expectancy, Outcome Value, and Self-presentational Efficacy). Further examination of the suggested relationships in the applied model is needed.
Lisa Cooke and Krista Chandler
Psychological skills such as goal setting, imagery, relaxation and self-talk have been used in performance enhancement, emotional regulation, and increasing one’s confidence and/or motivation in sport. These skills can also be applied with athletes during recovery from injury in the rehabilitation setting or in preseason meetings for preventing injury. Research on psychological skill use with athletes has shown that such skills have helped reduce negative psychological outcomes, improve coping skills, and reduce reinjury anxiety (Evans & Hardy, 2002; Johnson, 2000; Mankad & Gordon, 2010). Although research has been limited in psychological skill implementation with injured athletes, these skills can be used when working with injured athletes or in the prevention of injury. Injured athletes may use psychological skills such as setting realistic goals in coming back from injury, imagery to facilitate rehabilitation, and relaxation techniques to deal with pain management. In prevention of injury, the focus is on factors that put an individual at-risk for injury. Thus, teaching strategies of goal setting, imagery, relaxation techniques, and attention/focus can be instrumental in preparing athletes for a healthy season.
Ellen J. Staurowsky
The purpose of this paper is to trace the tangled web of relationships between and among European-American notions of property, individual and group possessory rights, and the role societal institutions play in promoting the exploitation of American Indian culture and people through the misappropriation of “Indianness” by sport teams. The analysis progresses from a discussion about the racial “invisibilities” of “Indianness” and “Whiteness” that are infused in these images and ultimately how these images are expressions of a “possessive investment in Whiteness” to a discussion delineating the property dimensions of this imagery and concludes with an examination of the mechanisms in place that leach children to become misappropriators.
Sean Brayton and Ted Alexander
Although scholars have used poststructural and postmodern frameworks to understand the power relations of sport, critical research has rarely considered a politics of irony in the sporting realm. Using the controversial frog logo of Québec City’s professional basketball team, we explore irony as a reading strategy and method of critique that is already ambivalent. As a self-directed stereotype, Dunky the Frog is unique in its emergence through irony. It appears to be an offensive anti-French mascot intended by the team’s French Canadian owner to be an innocuous comic prop. This ironic use of frog imagery places the competing desires of liberalist sublimation and French Canadian self-representation into an irresolvable contradiction, one that encourages an alternative reading of mascot controversies and identity politics.
George H. Sage
The professional team sports industry has consistently worked at constructing a symbiotic relationship in the collective American mind linking professional team sports with United States patriotism. Professional team sports organizations use a variety of advertising images, rituals, and ceremonies to reinforce this association. One means by which the organizations perpetuate this association is through league logos, all of which use only the colors red, white, and blue—the precise color combination found on the flag of the United States. League logos are prominently displayed on all their licensed merchandise, merchandise that generates about $10 billion in annual revenue for professional team sports. This paper focuses on the contradiction or paradox that exists between the imagery of All-American patriotism professional team sports construct and the fact that much of their licensed merchandise is manufactured in foreign countries by exploited labor. The analysis centers on meaning-production by deconstructing and critiquing the managed image of professional team sport organizations.
Ellen J. Staurowsky
Using a critical theory approach, this paper examines how perceptions of historical accuracy impact on the legitimation of the Cleveland Indians’ claim that the Native imagery used in the promotion of the franchise was chosen to honor the first Native American to play in the major leagues, Louis Francis Sockalexis. An analysis was conducted of data gathered from Cleveland’s own account of the naming of the franchise along with past and present renderings and antecedents of the story as they appear in a variety of publications and media sources over a 100-year time period beginning in 1897 and ending in 1997. In light of the findings, Cleveland’s professed organizational intent to honor Sockalexis was tested and found to be based on faulty information. The implications of this discovery are addressed.
Soo Yeon Kim and Sungjoo Park
This article aims to update the discourse on female Korean athletes by illuminating the radical change of their imagery and reality over the last three decades, from sexless victims of patriarchy to sportswomen asserting their strength, femininity, and even “queerness.” Insofar as sports films provide a felicitous site through which to examine popular and evolving representations of gender and sport, the article analyzes a variety of Korean sports films which reproduce, or pose a challenge to, conventional portrayals of female athletes. Due to the paucity of scholarly work undertaken in Korean in this field, the authors draw upon a wide array of mainly American sources and, in so doing, hope to enlarge the small but growing body of work on gender and sport in Korea written in English.
Holly Thorpe, Lyndsay Hayhurst and Megan Chawansky
representations of humanitarian agencies, social movements and community organizations, including visual imagery, are worthy of deeper critical consideration precisely because they “influence policies, practices and discourses of ‘development’ and connect cultures globally” (p. 161). Continuing, however, she
is not actively attempting to present racist imagery, their contingent acceptance of African athletes and their repetitive exploration into African problems and humanitarian advocacy reinforces black African athletes as the Other, and in doing so keeping all blacks in a marginal and tenuous position
history. Gruneau commences the narrative by challenging the notion of historical continuities between athletics, body imagery and spectacle in ancient Greece and Rome and modern sport. An accurate historical reading of the former, he suggests, underscores a set of highly complex, contradictory and