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Melissa Davies, Michael L. Naraine and Brandon Mastromartino

customers. Brand intangibles are commonly used by brands to differentiate and extend their product within the market. Intangibles, for example, can include the imagery, history, heritage, and experiences surrounding the brand ( Keller, 2001 ). These relationships with customers are desirable because they

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Fraser Laveay, Coy Callison and Ann Rodriguez

The pervasiveness of media coverage of sports teams with American Indian names and imagery has arguably supported stereotypical beliefs of those referenced. Past research investigating opinions on sports teams using American Indian themes has been inconsistent in findings and drawn criticism for lacking valid samples of Native Americans. Through a survey of National Congress of American Indians leaders (n = 208) and random U.S. adults (n = 484), results reveal that Native Americans are more offended by sports teams employing American Indian imagery, as well as more supportive of change, than is the general public. Investigation of how demographic characteristics influenced perceptions show that although age and education level have little influence, political party affiliation does correlate with opinions, with those voting Democrat viewing the teams with American Indian names, logos, and mascots as most offensive and in need of change.

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Lesley Ferkins and David Shilbury

To learn more about the governance of sport organizations, this study explored what meaning board members of national sport organizations (NSOs) attach to the concept of “strategic capability”. In so doing, the inquiry also identified factors considered to constrain or enable board strategic function. This paper draws on a body of knowledge developed over 38 years on board strategic function, primarily from the commercial setting but also from the emerging body of work in the nonprofit and sport governance setting. Located within the interpretive research paradigm this study engaged a range of different qualitative methods including cognitive mapping and visual imagery. Working across two NSOs in New Zealand, four elements were generated that served as reference points in mapping out the meaning of a strategically able board. These were categorized as the need to have capable people, a frame of reference, facilitative board processes, and facilitative regional relationships.

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T. Christopher Greenwell, Jason M. Simmons, Meg Hancock, Megan Shreffler and Dustin Thorn

imposing women engaged in hand-to-hand combat resulting in bloody noses and black eyes challenge societal definitions of femininity, and the use of imagery showing the violence inherent in combat sport has been found to be distasteful to female consumers ( Greenwell et al., 2015 ). Further, women may find

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Jesse King and Robert Madrigal

. Marketing Letters, 8 ( 4 ), 407 – 417 . doi:10.1023/A:1007995112055 10.1023/A:1007995112055 Phillips , B.J. ( 2003 ). Understanding visual metaphor in advertising . In L. Scott & R. Batra (Eds.), Persuasive imagery: A consumer response perspective (pp.  297 – 310 ). Mahwah, NJ : Lawrence

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Yong Jae Ko, Yonghwan Chang, Wonseok Jang, Michael Sagas and John Otto Spengler

-analytic examination of the goal orientation nomological net . Journal of Applied Psychology, 92 , 128 – 150 . PubMed doi: 10.1037/0021-9010.92.1.128 10.1037/0021-9010.92.1.128 Petrova , P.K. , & Cialdini , R.B. ( 2005 ). Fluency of consumption imagery and the backfire effects of imagery appeals . Journal

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Thomas Horky, Marianna Baranovskaa, Christoph G. Grimmer, Honorata Jakubowska and Barbara Stelzner

commentaries on a rugby match between New Zealand and France, which demonstrates not only national stereotypes but also the significance of live commentary on a local level ( Desmarais & Bruce, 2009 , 2010 ). These studies looked less into the visual imagery than into the influence of the verbal stimulus as

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Akira Asada, Yong Jae Ko and Wonseok (Eric) Jang

.2016-0113 10.1123/jsm.2016-0113 Ji , J.L. , Heyes , S.B. , MacLeod , C. , & Holmes , E.A. ( 2016 ). Emotional mental imagery as simulation of reality: Fear and beyond—A tribute to Peter Lang . Behavior Therapy, 47, 702 – 719 . PubMed ID: 27816082 doi:10.1016/j.beth.2015.11.004 10.1016/j

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Robert J. Lake

. To date, invented traditions in tennis have not been given the academic attention they likely deserve, despite the sport’s being rich in historical imagery and tradition and rooted in historically derived behavioral ideals and cultural practices ( Lake, 2015 ; Wagg, 2017 ). Aims and Objectives This

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Eunyoung Kim and Wilson Lowrey

development. Anderson ( 2000 ) explained how local Atlanta newspapers used symbolic issues to promote the development of a stadium and team in 1964, pointing out that “when National League owners voted to allow the Braves to play in Atlanta in 1966, local sportswriters used symbolic imagery of the South