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Frank C. Bakker, Marc S.J. Boschker and Tjuling Chung

Investigating emotional imagery, Lang (1977, 1979) proposed a dichotomy between stimulus and response propositions. In this study, Lang’s model is applied to movement images of lifting of 4.5 and 9 kg weights. Twenty-two male and 17 female students participated in the study. During the imaginary lifting of the weights, the electromyographical activity (EMG) of both biceps brachii muscles were assessed. Imagery ability was measured with the Movement Imagery Questionnaire (MIQ) and another self-report rating scale. When response propositions were emphasized in the script, imaginary weight lifting resulted in greater muscle activity than when stimulus propositions were emphasized. During imagined lifting, EMG activity of the active arm was greater than that of the passive arm. In addition, in the active arm, a significant difference in EMG activity was found between 9 kg and 4.5 kg. It was concluded that Lang’s model is also applicable to emotionally neutral movement imagery.

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Nichola Callow, Dan Jiang, Ross Roberts and Martin G. Edwards

Research examining the effects of imagery on the acquisition and execution of motor performance has delineated imagery into modalities and perspectives. This delineation includes visual and kinesthetic sensory modalities (e.g., Fourkas, Avenanti, Urgesi, & Aglioti, 2006 ; Guillot et al., 2009

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Cornelia Frank, Gian-Luca Linstromberg, Linda Hennig, Thomas Heinen and Thomas Schack

way of imagery training of tactical skills has evolved (cognitive general imagery; for an overview, see Westlund Stewart, Pope, & Tobin, 2012 ). While to date, research has focused on changes in performance and learning on a behavioral level of interaction, research on the influence of imagery

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Maria-Christina Kosteli, Jennifer Cumming and Sarah E. Williams

important to employ strategies that target these different social-cognitive factors. A well-known intervention strategy to promote PA is imagery ( Hall, 1995 ). Imagery is defined as the mental representation of an object, action, or psychological state in the absence of any external stimulus and can be

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Justin M. Slade, Daniel M. Landers and Philip E. Martin

Based on inflow explanations, the predictions related to EMG activity during imagery of a dumbbell and manipulandum curl were that EMG activity: (a) increases, relative to baseline, in both the biceps and triceps of the active arm; (b) is localized to muscles used in executing the real movement; and (c) mirrors the pattern of activity observed during the real movement. Based on literature which suggests that EMG activity during imagery may be due to expectancy effects, it was also hypothesized that EMG activity would be greater during imagery for those who were aware of the predictions of inflow explanations than for those who were unaware of those predictions. Undergraduate students (N = 60) completed a series of real and imagined dumbbell and manipulandum curls. For both movements, biceps and triceps EMG activity was measured in both the passive and active arms during baseline, imagery, and real movement conditions. No EMG differences were found between those who were aware or unaware of the predictions derived from inflow explanations. For both curls, average EMG biceps and triceps activity was significantly greater in the active arm during imagery than during baseline. Pattern analysis showed that the EMG activation patterns for biceps and triceps did not mirror the triphasic EMG pattern observed during the real movement. Results did not support the mirroring hypothesis (e.g., the psychoneuro-muscular theory), as the pattern of increased activation during imagery did not reflect that observed during the real movement.

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Marcia I. Milne, Wendy M. Rodgers, Craig R. Hall and Philip M. Wilson

Across various social cognitive theories, behavioral intention is broadly argued to be the most proximal and important predictor of behavior (Ajzen, 1991; Gibbons, Gerrard, Blanton, & Russell, 1998; Rogers, 1983). It seems probable that an intention to increase behavior might be differentially determined from an intention to maintain behavior. Thus, the purpose of the current study was to examine (1) the change in two types of behavioral intention over time and (2) the relationship between intention and the social-cognitive factor mental imagery. Behavioral intention, exercise imagery, and observed exercise behavior was measured in 68 exercise initiates participating in a 12-week exercise program. Results revealed that behavioral intention to increase exercise behavior decreased over the exercise program, whereas intentions to maintain exercise behavior increased. Appearance and technique imagery were found to be significant predictors of intention to increase behavior during the first 6 weeks of the program, and only appearance imagery predicted intention to maintain exercise behavior during the last 6 weeks. These findings suggest that the two types of behavioral intention are distinguishable and may be useful targets for exercise behavior interventions.

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Nicolas Robin, Lucette Toussaint, Guillaume R. Coudevylle, Shelly Ruart, Olivier Hue and Stephane Sinnapah

text message that would suggest without imposing a particular type of APA (e.g., Kim & Glanz, 2013 ) would be beneficial and would permit the choice of the desired physical activity, as suggested by Head et al. ( 2013 ). According to Gavilán, Avello, and Abril ( 2014 ), imagery is positioned as a

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Nicolas Robin, Lucette Toussaint, Eric Joblet, Emmanuel Roublot and Guillaume R. Coudevylle

Motor imagery (MI) is a popular mental technique widely used in sport, exercise, and rehabilitation ( Anuar, Cumming, & Williams, 2016 ; Guillot & Collet, 2008 ; Slimani, Tod, Chaabene, Miarka, & Chamari, 2016 ). MI is a conscious process that typically requires individuals to mentally simulate

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Stacy Winter and Dave Collins

Priming has recently emerged in the literature as offering advantages in the preparation for skilled performance. Accordingly, the current study tested the efficacy of imagery against a priming paradigm as a means of enhancing motor performance: in essence, contrasting a preparation technique primarily under the conscious control of the performer to an unconscious technique promoting automaticity. The imagery intervention was guided by the PETTLEP model, while the priming intervention took the form of a scrambled sentence task. Eighteen skilled field-hockey players performed a dribbling task under imagery, priming, skill-focus, and control conditions. Results revealed a significant improvement in speed and technical accuracy for the imagery condition as opposed to the skill-focus, control, and priming conditions. In addition, there were no significant differences in performance times or technical accuracy between the priming and control conditions. The study provides further support for the efficacy of imagery to elicit enhanced motor skill performance but questions the emerging emphasis on priming as an effective tool in preparation for physical tasks.

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Bruce Hale, Paul Holmes, Dave Smith, Neil Fowler and Dave Collins

Several years ago Collins and Hale (1997) commented on nonrigorous experimental designs and procedures which typified published research examining the psychophysiology of the imagery process. Conceptual, methodological, and analytical guidelines were offered to improve the quality of future research undertakings. While Slade, Landers, and Martin (2002) have followed some of these suggestions, their recent imagery study examining the “mirror hypothesis” and a theory-expectancy hypothesis with EMG recordings still appears to have some conceptual inconsistencies, methodological flaws, and analytical weaknesses that make their conclusions ambiguous. These concerns are identified, and more suggestions for improved designs are given, in another attempt to improve the quality of the scientific research undertaken in sport psychophysiology.