need to develop a novel intervention through goal-centered motivation, in this study we tested the potential of functional imagery training (FIT; Andrade, Khalil, Dickson, May, & Kavanagh, 2016 ) to develop character—precisely, grit. Andrade et al. ( 2016 ) developed FIT as a client-centered approach
Jonathan Rhodes, Jon May, Jackie Andrade and David Kavanagh
Cornelia Frank, Gian-Luca Linstromberg, Linda Hennig, Thomas Heinen and Thomas Schack
way of imagery training of tactical skills has evolved (cognitive general imagery; for an overview, see Westlund Stewart, Pope, & Tobin, 2012 ). While to date, research has focused on changes in performance and learning on a behavioral level of interaction, research on the influence of imagery
With the emergence of sport imagery training programs, sport psychologists need to understand the various conditions that have been found to facilitate imagery practice. This manuscript focuses on these conditions including vividness and controllability, practice, attitude and expectation, previous experience, relaxed attention, and internal versus external imagery. The summary synthesizes key points, advocating that these points be stressed in future sport imagery research and programs.
Zhang Li-Wei, Ma Qi-Wei, Terry Orlick and Louise Zitzelsberger
Field studies investigating the potential benefit of mental-imagery training with young children have been lacking in the literature. The purpose of this investigation was to shed light on the appropriateness of mental training for children. Three groups of 7–10-year-old table tennis players participated in this study to assess the value of mental-imagery training, specifically with respect to children’s performance enhancement. The results indicated that children who used mental imagery experienced significantly greater improvement in the accuracy and technical quality of their shots than children in comparison groups. This study suggests that mental-imagery training, combined with videotaped images and relaxation, may be particularly promising for children.
Claire Calmels, Christelle Berthoumieux and Fabienne Fabienne d’Arripe-Longueville
This study examined the effectiveness of an imagery training program in improving national softball players’ selective attention. A multiple-baseline design across individuals was used. There were four participants. One remained at baseline, while the other three spent 10 min a day practicing an audio-taped imagery program composed of 28 sessions. Measures of selective attention were collected via a baseball/softball batting specific version stemming from Nideffer’s (1976) Test of Attentional and Interpersonal Style (TAIS). The results demonstrated that the imagery training program generally enhanced the ability of softball players to integrate external stimuli without being overloaded with them and to narrow attention. Results were discussed in relation to the usefulness of multiple-baseline designs for investigating individual differences among elite athletes. Practical pedagogical considerations for coaching are proposed.
Jennifer L. Cumming and Diane M. Ste-Marie
The primary purpose of this study was to use synchronized skaters to examine the influence of imagery perspective on the cognitive and motivational functions of imagery during a five-week imagery training program. To this end, 16 novice synchronized skaters participated in an imagery intervention that incorporated both cognitive and motivational imagery. The Sport Imagery Questionnaire (SIQ: Hall, Mack, Paivio, & Hausenblas, 1998) was used to assess changes in the skaters’ use of cognitive and motivational images as a result of the training program. The results of a MANOVA indicated that skaters increased their use of cognitive specific and cognitive general imagery, regardless of their preferred imagery perspective. Furthermore, neither group showed changes in their use of imagery for motivational functions. The findings are discussed within the context of Hardy’s (1997) proposal that a particular imagery perspective is beneficial for the learning and performance of motor skills if it provides visual information that is otherwise not available to the performer.
Bart S. Lerner, Andrew C. Ostrow, Michael T. Yura and Edward F. Etzel
The purposes of this study were to investigate the effects of goal-setting and imagery programs, as well as a combined goal-setting and imagery training program, on the free-throw performance among female collegiate basketball players over the course of an entire season. A multiple-baseline, single-subject A-B-A design was employed in which participants were randomly assigned to one of three interventions: (a) goal-setting (n = 4), (b) imagery (n = 4), or (c) goal-setting and imagery (n = 4). Free-throw data were collected during practice sessions. Data were examined by way of changes in mean, level, trend, latency, and variability between baseline and intervention, and then between intervention and a second baseline phase. Three participants in the goal-setting program, and one participant in the goal-setting and imagery program, increased their mean free-throw performance from baseline to intervention. However, three participants in the imagery program decreased their mean free-throw performance from baseline to intervention. Goal discrepancy scores also were investigated. A positive correlation was found between participants’ free-throw performance and personal goals.
Richard M. Fenker Jr. and Judith G. Lambiotte
This article presents a case study describing the development and implementation of a performance enhancement program for a major college football team. The program used imagery training techniques in conjunction with a process-oriented approach to performance to help the team achieve its best record in 20 years. Data on the individual players’ game grades, their evaluation of the enhancement program, and their strategy for reaching an optimal mental state were collected. In all, 86% of the starters evaluated the program’s overall value to the team as being important or very significant. Multiple regression analyses were used to predict starters’ game grades and consistency ratings from the athletes’ preparation and performance (readiness) strategies. Details of the imagery training procedures and other enhancement techniques are included.
Susan G. Ziegler, James Klinzing and Kirk Williamson
The effects of two stress management programs on the cardiorespiratory efficiency of eight male cross-country runners were investigated. Oxygen consumption and heart rate data were monitored on a maximal oxygen consumption tradmill run. A week later each subject completed a 20-min submaximal run (at a constant workload approximating 50% of each subject's maximal oxygen consumption run). Based on these scores, subjects were divided into three groups: control, stress innoculation training, and stress management training. Subjects in both training groups completed a mental training program including EMG relaxation training, cognitive coping strategies, and one type of imagery training. Results of the 20-min post submaximal run indicated significant differences in cardiorespiratory efficiency between both training groups and the control group. No differences emerged between the training groups.
Nicole Westlund Stewart and Craig Hall
The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of a 6-week CG imagery intervention on strategic decision-making in curling. A secondary purpose was to determine whether curlers’ imagery ability and CG imagery use would be improved. Eleven varsity curlers from a Canadian postsecondary institution engaged in weekly guided imagery sessions that were held at the curling club before their regularly scheduled team practices. Curlers’ response times on a computerized curling strategy assessment significantly improved from baseline to post-intervention (p < .05). In addition, their kinesthetic imagery ability, CG imagery use, and MG-M imagery use significantly increased (p < .05). These results suggest that when curlers are exposed to new scenarios, they learn to store, process, and retrieve relevant information quicker (Simon & Chase, 1973). From a practical standpoint, CG imagery training can improve curlers’ strategy performance, including their ability to use various strategies in game situations.