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Ian McGinnis, Justin Cobb, Ryan Tierney and Anne Russ

Introduction/Clinical Scenario Dizziness and imbalance are two of the most commonly-reported symptoms in the early stages of concussion. Anywhere from 23–81% of patients report dizziness in the days following injury. 1 – 3 An initial presentation of dizziness can be a predictor of prolonged

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Kyoungyoun Park, Thomas Ksiazek and Bernadette Olson

to activities of daily living and participation without consequence within a reasonable time frame (30 d or less). However, some adolescents do not recover within this time frame and are then diagnosed with postconcussion syndrome (PCS). 9 Dizziness, unsteadiness, and imbalance are a common cluster

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Mai-Linh Dovan

Column-editor : Richard DeMont

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Christopher J. Hirth

Column-editor : Darin A. Padua

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Denise L. Massie and Annetta Haddox

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Jeffrey G. Williams, Lauryn Darnall and Conrad Schumann

with motion at adjacent body regions. For example, do baseball players at all skill levels develop changes in TLR ROM from participating in the sport? Are changes in TLR ROM related to alterations in rotational motion at the hip and/or shoulder? Is imbalance in TLR pathological? If so, how much TLR

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Geoff Lovell and Mike Lauder


Anecdotal evidence suggests a relationship between strength imbalances and injury incidence.


To examine the relationship between bilateral strength imbalance and incidence of injury.

Participants and Design:

Thirty national- or international-standard flatwater kayakers were classified as noninjured, trunk injured, or upper-limb injured based on the number of days lost from training over the last 6 months. Bilateral strength imbalance was measured using a kayak ergometer, producing data for peak force and force impulse for each side of each stroke. Bilateral strength imbalance was then compared between the noninjured, trunk-injured, and upper-limb-injured groups by means of 2 one-way ANOVAs. No participants reported training days lost through lower-limb injury.


A significantly elevated bilateral peak-force strength imbalance was observed between the upper-limb-injured and the noninjured groups.


These data support the existence of a relationship between strength imbalance and incidence of injury.

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Angélica Ginés-Díaz, María Teresa Martínez-Romero, Antonio Cejudo, Alba Aparicio-Sarmiento and Pilar Sainz de Baranda

high volume of training is more likely to produce a spinal deformity. 5 Those aforementioned movement patterns and training loads can generate postural alterations that give rise to painful actions, muscular imbalances, and the development of compensatory movement patterns, 7 which directly damage

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Hannah Butler-Coyne, Vaithehy Shanmuganathan-Felton and Jamie Taylor

wellbeing imbalance” including “contextual,” “spectrum of imbalance,” “disorganised thoughts,” “negative sense of self,” “personal & professional relationship difficulties” and “physical health difficulties.” Life experiences, upbringing and childhood influences were identified as significant “ contextual

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Bin Chen, Yichao Zhao, Xianxin Cao, Guojiong Hu, Lincoln B. Chen and Wenxin Niu

acromioclavicular joint, muscular imbalance of the shoulder rotators and related secondary impingement syndrome are often seen in athletes involved in overhead sports. 3 – 6 Although various muscles contribute to the dynamic stability of the shoulder, a lack of shoulder balance of the external (infraspinatus and