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Hannah Butler-Coyne, Vaithehy Shanmuganathan-Felton and Jamie Taylor

wellbeing imbalance” including “contextual,” “spectrum of imbalance,” “disorganised thoughts,” “negative sense of self,” “personal & professional relationship difficulties” and “physical health difficulties.” Life experiences, upbringing and childhood influences were identified as significant “ contextual

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Amy Baker, Mary A. Hums, Yoseph Mamo and Damon P.S. Andrew

emerging field. Furthermore, sport management faculty has a gender imbalance, with far more male faculty employed than female faculty, which contributes to the uniqueness of the context. Jones, Brooks, and Mak ( 2008 ) found that 66% of sport management programs had fewer than 40% female faculty members

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Frederick S. Daniels and Daniel M. Landers

This study investigated heart rate (HE) and respiration functioning during rifle shooting to test hypotheses derived from Schwartz's (1979) systems and disregulation theory, and to compare biofeedback with verbal instruction in developing awareness and control of autonomic patterns. Male subjects (N = 8) were pretested to determine HE and respiration patterns affecting performance. They were then divided into two equal groups and given either auditory biofeedback or verbal instruction. The auditory-biofeedback group received continuous pattern feedback through earphones while the verbal instruction group received only presession instruction without feedback. Each group trained for five sessions of 40 shots each. Following training, two 40-shot sessions were conducted. A scaled interview was administered pre- and posttraining to determine awareness/control of autonomic functioning. Compared to the verbal instruction group, the results showed that the biofeedback group significantly improved performance and consistency of the desired pattern and had significantly greater awareness/control of the autonomic pattern. The results supported the systems and disregulation theory as well as the viability of biofeedback for altering imbalances within the systems.

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April Karlinsky and Nicola J. Hodges

et al., 2011 ). Viewing actors in states of imbalance disturbed passive observers’ own postural stability and different postural reactions were elicited based on the orientation of the actor (e.g.,  Sebanz & Shiffrar, 2007 ; Tia et al., 2012 ). Of particular relevance to the current study, observing

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Joshua Twaites, Richard Everson, Joss Langford and Melvyn Hillsdon

). The formula for computation is: MCC = ( TN × TP ) − ( FP × FN ) ( TP + FP ) × ( TP + FN ) × ( TN + FP ) × ( TN + FN ) where TP, FP, TN and FN stand for the numbers of True Positives, False Positives, True Negatives and False Negatives, respectively. Due to the imbalanced nature of the data sets

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Francini Vilela Novais, Eduardo J. Simoes, Chester Schmaltz and Luiz R. Ramos

 = unbiased estimate of η 2 . a Adjusted model included sex and nonlinear splines for both preintervention leisure-time physical activity and age effect. * P  < .05. Despite randomization of subjects into intervention groups, there were small imbalances at the study baseline for minutes of LTPA per week and

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Chris Wagstaff, Rebecca Hings, Rebecca Larner and David Fletcher

potentially confounding effects of the athlete sample’s demographics. That is, a sample of largely young ( M  = 21 years), male (57%), competitive athletes (37%) was included. Despite the moderate imbalance toward nonelite young men, we do not believe that the data were biased or unrepresentative of

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Laura St. Germain, Amanda M. Rymal and David J. Hancock

). Second, the second and third authors acted as critical friends, further reducing potential power imbalance. In following these two steps, the research team identified potential biases, thereby enhancing rigor. Third, codes were created from the data, as opposed to having pre-determined codes, which

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Matthew Pearce, David H. Saunders, Peter Allison and Anthony P. Turner

a barrier to meeting activity guidelines. Data presented here do not support this hypothesis, and this is common with self-report data for outdoor play from a nationally representative sample in England. 14 In fact, these results suggest a potential imbalance in the opposite direction, with