Jamie Cleland, Stacey Pope and John Williams
complicit practices of sexism and subordination toward women in men’s football. The second addresses the extent to which women are regarded as “authentic” fans and illustrates the gender inequalities and power imbalances they face in their practice of fandom in men’s professional football in the United
Margaret Carlisle Duncan and Cynthia A. Hasbrook
Televised texts of women’s sports are examined using the hermeneutical method. This study begins with the observation that women’s participation in team sports and certain “male-appropriate” individual sports is significantly lower than men’s participation in these sports. More striking yet is the media’s (particularly television’s) virtual disregard of women in team sports and certain individual sports. On the basis of these observations, the authors frame their research question: Do these imbalances constitute a symbolic denial of power for women? To answer this question, the authors investigate televised depictions of basketball, surfing, and marathon running. In each sport, the television narratives and visuals of the women’s competition are contrasted with those of the men’s competition. These depictions reveal a profound ambivalence in the reporting of the women’s sports, something that is not present in the reporting of the men’s sports. This ambivalence consists of conflicting messages about female athletes; positive portrayals of sportswomen are combined with subtly negative suggestions that trivialize or undercut the women’s efforts. Such trivialization is a way of denying power to women. The authors conclude by asserting that sport and leisure educators have an ethical obligation to redress the imbalance of power in the sporting world.
John Fry and Daniel Bloyce
This article examines the effects of globalization on the well-being of migrant professional athletes. Interviews with 20 touring professional golfers reveal that players experience many of the personal problems—such as loneliness, isolation, low decision latitude, low social support, and effort-reward imbalance—which have been identified as “strong predictors of mental ill-health” (Leka & Jain, 2010, p. 65). Feelings of loneliness and isolation developed as players were regularly apart from family and friends, and spent most of their time with other golfers whom they had somewhat superficial relationships with. These feelings coupled with, for many, uncertain income generated through golf added further to their work-related anxieties. Overall, results highlight the importance of considering how workplace anxieties and vulnerabilities impact on athlete migrants’ health and well-being.
Minseok An and George H. Sage
In the past decade, to help maintain political stability and promote economic growth, South Korea has committed substantial resources to commercialized sports, including golf. A major source of support for building golf courses has come from government leaders and economic and social incentives as well. In the past 4 years the government has given permission to build 135 new golf courses. The official government discourse about the new golf courses is that they are being built in the interest of “sport for all.” But the golf courses overwhelmingly require membership, which is extremely expensive. Despite the enormous power and resources of the dominant groups in Korea, there are elements of opposition. The golf boom has been severely criticized because it removes large amounts of land from agricultural and industrial productivity, contaminates farm land, and pollutes water. It also represents the worst aspects of the social imbalance of wealth.
Amy Baker, Mary A. Hums, Yoseph Mamo and Damon P.S. Andrew
emerging field. Furthermore, sport management faculty has a gender imbalance, with far more male faculty employed than female faculty, which contributes to the uniqueness of the context. Jones, Brooks, and Mak ( 2008 ) found that 66% of sport management programs had fewer than 40% female faculty members
A. Lamont Williams
dynamics embedded in sport society) cannot be dismantled by use of the “master’s tools,” but can be disassembled by CRT as a “pragmatic intellectual standpoint” (p. v). The CRT is an analytic scope and conceptual framework used to examine societal norms and expose racist practices, power imbalances
Simon C. Darnell, Richard Giulianotti, P. David Howe and Holly Collison
negotiated within a networked set of dynamic relationships and connections. Drawing on the insights of transnational, post-colonial, and feminist epistemologies which call attention to social structures and power imbalances, she argues that within the SDP sector, aid is fundamentally relational and shaped
power imbalance between the FIG and IOC allowed the IOC to exert pressure and influence on the FIG about how it governed gymnastics. This pressure to abide by Olympic norms is seen in policies developed across several fields, including those related to gender, economics, and athlete welfare, all of
women combat sports athletes are among the most physically powerful women in society, thus offering them the ability to “reduc[e] [the] physical power imbalances on which patriarchy is founded and reified” ( Castelnuovo & Guthrie, 1998 , p. 13), whether such women undo gender in their intimate