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Amy Baker, Mary A. Hums, Yoseph Mamo and Damon P.S. Andrew

emerging field. Furthermore, sport management faculty has a gender imbalance, with far more male faculty employed than female faculty, which contributes to the uniqueness of the context. Jones, Brooks, and Mak ( 2008 ) found that 66% of sport management programs had fewer than 40% female faculty members

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Molly Hayes Sauder, Michael Mudrick and Jaime R. DeLuca

role models. Jones et al. ( 2008 ) claimed that gender imbalances in the classroom likely contribute to the belief that there is a carryover effect, in that the sport industry is similarly male dominated and women face legitimate barriers in the field. Certainly barriers for females in the sport

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G. Matthew Robinson, Mitchell J. Neubert and Glenn Miller

mission and help rectify the ethical imbalance prevalent in intercollegiate athletics in the United States ( Burton & Peachey, 2013 ). Further, in a recent review on leadership in sport, Peachey, Zhou, Damon, and Burton ( 2015 ) note that the most highly cited leadership article within the sport

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Huan Yu Xiao and Andrea N. Eagleman

This commentary analyzes the growth and current status of the education, facilities, faculty, and teaching quality associated with sport communication education in China. It presents findings from a survey of Chinese sport communication students and their perceptions of the quality of education at universities offering such programs, as well as survey results from Chinese sport media professionals and their assessments of the students graduating from these programs. The results of these surveys signify problematic areas in sport communication education, such as an imbalance between the number of students in these programs and the amount of equipment and resources available, the shortage of qualified teachers, and the lack of applied sport communication opportunities available to the students. The article also details the relationship between supply and demand in academia. The commentary closes with proposed strategic solutions for the reformation and development of the academic environment related to sport communication in China.

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Katherine Baird

This article examines the relationship between player compensation in college football and competitive balance on the field. It shows that National Collegiate Athletic Association rule changes restricting football-player compensation are not associated with an improvement in football’s competitive balance. Although college football is marginally more balanced than professional sports in any given year, an examination of cumulative records spanning numerous seasons proves college football to be as unbalanced as professional sports. The movement toward reducing player compensation, coincident with an increasing value to player talent, raises issues over how the financial gain from college football talent should be used. The significant degree of talent (and financial) imbalance among college football teams suggests that more attention should be paid to the determinants of talent distribution in college football.

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Ruth Sibson

The under-representation of women in sport management has increasingly been recognized by government and nongovernment organizations, and there has been some attempt to redress the imbalance. Research has indicated, however, that the gendering of sport organizations is not simply a numbers’ game. The purpose of this study was to analyze the exercise of exclusionary power as an aspect of gender relations within a six member volunteer Board of Directors of an Australian local, grass-roots sport organization. Data were gathered using semistructured interviews, participant observation and documentary evidence over a 15-month period. This study identified that, although numerical underrepresentation of men or women on this Board was not an issue for either sex, exclusionary power was exercised in a number of overlapping ways which ultimately limited the participation, input, and influence of its female members.

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Wendy Frisby, Susan Crawford and Therese Dorer

In contrast to traditional approaches to research, participatory action research calls for the active involvement of the community—including both the beneficiaries and providers of sport services—in defining research problems, executing interventions, interpreting results, and designing strategies to change existing power structures. The purpose of this paper was to analyze a participatory action research project designed to increase the access of women living below the poverty line and their families to local physical activity services. A framework developed by Green et al. (1995) formed the basis of the analysis. To place the analysis in context, the historical origins and theoretical assumptions underlying participatory action research were addressed. The case of the Women's Action Project demonstrated how the process can result in a more inclusive local sport system and, at the same time, provide a rich setting for examining organizational dynamics including collaborative decision-making, community partnerships, power imbalances, resource control, resistance to change, and nonhierarchical structures.

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Michael L. Naraine, Jessie Schenk and Milena M. Parent

This paper sought to examine the stakeholder network governance structures of two international and two domestic multisports events focusing on (a) exploring the structural connectedness of these networks and (b) illuminating powerful stakeholders vis-à-vis centrality and the ability to control the network’s flow. An exploratory, comparative case study design was built by means of 58 interviews and 550 archival materials. Findings highlight international sports events are sparsely connected networks with power concentrated in the organizing committee, government, and venue stakeholders, who broker coordination with other stakeholders. In contrast, domestic sport event organizing committees appear more decentralized as coordinating actors: Sport organizations, sponsors, and community-based stakeholders emerged as highly connected, powerful stakeholders. Domestic event governance decentralization highlights a potential imbalance in stakeholder interests through network flow control by multiple actors, while the governments’ centrality in international events demonstrates not only mode-dependent salience but also visibility/reputational risks and jurisdictional responsibilities-based salience.

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Gareth J. Jones, Katie Misener, Per G. Svensson, Elizabeth Taylor and Moonsup Hyun

sport organizations may not fully utilize IORs to their maximum potential ( Misener & Doherty, 2013 ). Previous research has focused primarily on interorganizational dynamics and power imbalances that encumber IOR formation and management (e.g.,  Babiak & Thibault, 2009 ; Barnes, Cousens, & MacLean