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Tania Pizzari, Helen McBurney, Nicholas F. Taylor and Julian A. Feller

Objective:

To investigate the subjective experience of anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) rehabilitation and identify variables that influence adherence as perceived by ACL-reconstructed patients.

Design:

A qualitative study using in-depth interviews to gather data and thematic coding to analyze findings.

Setting:

Participants were interviewed at home or in their workplace.

Participants:

Eleven patients were interviewed at an average of 4.8 months (SD = 0.8) after ACL reconstruction.

Results:

Using thematic coding of the interview data, 3 categories of variables influencing adherence emerged: environmental factors, physical factors, and psychological factors. Variables specifically affecting adherence to home exercise were perceived lack of time and a lack of self-motivation. Fear of reinjury emerged as a significant consideration for those who were nonadherent. Factors such as therapist support, the rehabilitation clinic, and the progression of exercises were identified as being important for attendance at physiotherapy appointments and adherence during appointments.

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Rebecca K. Lytle and Gayle E. Hutchinson

The purpose of this study was to describe the experiences and roles adapted physical educators engaged in during consultation interactions. Participants included 4 females and 2 males with experience teaching (range of 3-21 years) in the field of adapted physical education. Data collection included a demographic data sheet, two individual in-depth interviews, interview notes, document analysis, and field observations. Results indicate that participants experienced and made meaning for five distinct roles, including advocate, educator, courier, supporter/helper, and resource coordinator. These findings and future discoveries may influence curriculum and pedagogical approaches for adapted physical education teacher training programs.

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Christoph Lienert, Claudine Sherrill and Bettye Myers

The purpose was to conduct a qualitative cross-cultural comparison of the concerns of physical educators in two countries about integration of children with and without disabilities. In-depth interviews were held with 30 regular elementary physical education teachers in Berlin (7 males, 9 females) and in the Dallas-Ft. Worth (DFW) area (2 males, 12 females), and observations were made of school settings. The Concerns-Based Adoption Model (CBAM) of Hall, Wallace, and Dossett (1973) guided the study. Data were analyzed by grounded theory procedures. Many concerns about integration were generalizable across cultures. In both countries, teachers reported concerns at only four of the seven stages of CBAM: personal, management, consequence, and collaboration. Most concerns focused on management. The major cultural difference was that DFW teachers reported more personal concerns (uncertainty about everyday demands and competence to meet these demands) than Berlin teachers. A dynamic systems model was proposed to guide future research.

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øyvind F. Standal and Ejgil Jespersen

The purpose of this study was to investigate the learning that takes place when people with disabilities interact in a rehabilitation context. Data were generated through in-depth interviews and close observations in a 2½ week-long rehabilitation program, where the participants learned both wheelchair skills and adapted physical activities. The findings from the qualitative data analysis are discussed in the context of situated learning (Lave & Wenger, 1991; Wenger, 1998). The results indicate that peer learning extends beyond skills and techniques, to include ways for the participants to make sense of their situations as wheelchair users. Also, it was found that the community of practice established between the participants represented a critical corrective to instructions provided by rehabilitation professionals.

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Deborah J. Buswell, Claudine Sherrill, Ronald French and Bettye Myers

The purpose was to examine perspectives on publication of highly productive women adapted physical activity scholars. In-depth interviews were conducted with 13 women from three countries, and data were analyzed utilizing constant comparison methodology. Profiles of two groups, significantly different on publication productivity, emerged and were named highest high producers (HHP) and other high producers (OHP). Similarities between the two groups included affective domain qualities, facilitating factors, and overcoming barriers. Differences were mainly in degree of self-determination, prioritization of writing relative to significant others, collaboration, and collegiality. Based on thematic analysis of interview data, we posited the following: high publication productivity of women adapted physical activity professionals is associated with internal motivation to write, which is enhanced by positive interactions with other professionals, supportive home environments, and supportive work environments.

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Michael S. Jeffress and William J. Brown

Power soccer (or powerchair football), the first competitive team sport for users of motorized wheelchairs, is receiving increased attention among people with disabilities, healthcare professionals, and academics. The present study provides a qualitative analysis of the experiences of 34 American power soccer athletes. Participant observation and in-depth interviews with 11 female and 23 male athletes were conducted between 2007 and 2013. Results indicate that involvement in power soccer provides participants with an increased sense of empowerment, acquisition of social capital, and psychosocial benefits, including a deep satisfaction of the desire to participate in competitive sports and an opportunity to be independent. Implications of these findings for improving the quality of life of people with physical disabilities and for future research are discussed.

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Eva Hiu-Lun Tsai and Lena Fung

This study examined the experiences of parents of persons with intellectual disabilities (ID) as they sought inclusive sport participation for their children. To understand their experiences, in-depth interviews were conducted with 49 parents. Qualitative data analysis was conducted to identify common themes from the responses. The analysis showed that most parents sought inclusive sport involvement for their children but they soon gave up their effort due to rejection by staff and other participants. Underlying these attitudinal problems were a lack of quality contact between people with and without ID and a lack of understanding of people with ID. Parents’ lack of sense of entitlement, low sport values, and lack of participation information and opportunities also contributed to their giving up of inclusive sport. Factors leading to successful inclusion included staff inclusion attitudes and abilities and the social skills of individuals with ID.

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Yeshayahu Hutzler, Osnat Fliess, Anat Chacham and Yves Van den Auweele

The purpose was to explore the personal experiences of children with physical disabilities in physical education (PE) and to identify supporting and limiting mechanisms to their inclusion and empowerment. A computerized analysis of individual profiles was performed based on in-depth interviews with 8 females and 2 males, ages 9 to 15, who were included in regular PE classes. Two individual profiles served as examples for situations faced during inclusive settings and typical reaction patterns. A comparative qualitative analysis of interview themes generated five main categories of themes: assistive devices, physical activity, peers, important adults, and self. Experiences during physical activity were identified as supporting or limiting empowerment within each category, based on selected criteria. An almost equal distribution of supporting and limiting factors was observed.

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Martin Camiré

Leadership is often formalized within sport through captaincy, but researchers have yet to examine the realities of captaincy at the highest level of professional competition. The current study examined the benefits, pressures, and challenges of leadership and captaincy in the National Hockey League (NHL). One captain of an NHL team participated in two in-depth interviews, providing thorough descriptions of his first-hand experiences as an NHL captain, including (a) the techniques he uses to manage his media obligations, (b) his role as a communication bridge between players and coaches, (c) the composition of his leadership group, and (d) examples of interactions that occur during player-only meetings. The transition to captaincy was considered an especially challenging and pressure-filled period. Practical implications for sport psychology consultants are discussed in terms of how they can assist captains of elite competitive teams in setting realistic expectations for their leadership role.

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Howard L. Nixon II

This paper addresses how parents encourage or discourage sports involvement by their visually impaired offspring, the types of sports involvement these children pursue, and the effects of parental encouragement on sports involvement. It analyzes new evidence from a study of parental adjustment to a visually impaired child. The evidence was derived mainly from open-ended, in-depth interviews of parents of 18 partially sighted and totally blind children who had attended public school. There were 15 mothers and 9 fathers in the 16 families who were interviewed, and 2 of the families had 2 visually impaired children. Additional data were provided through interviews with 14 professionals and volunteers from various fields who had sports-related experiences or observations of visually impaired children and their families. Four major forms of parental encouragement and discouragement were identified: strong encouragers, weak encouragers, tolerators, and discouragers. The predominance of the latter three helped explain the dominant patterns of limited involvement in sport by visually impaired children. Implications of these findings for mainstreaming and appropriate integration also are considered.