the data in the study were collected, analyzed, and reported. Of note, however, is the point that utilizing a quantitative survey prior to in-depth interviews and including multiple interviewers and data analysts in the qualitative research design improves credibility through both method triangulation
K. Andrew R. Richards, Chad M. Killian, Kim C. Graber and Ben D. Kern
Ben D. Kern, Suzan F. Ayers, Chad M. Killian and Amelia Mays Woods
baccalaureate) is included in parentheses following participants’ pseudonym to provide context. A detailed description of all study methods is presented in Chapter 4 ( Richards, Killian, Graber, & Kern, 2019 ). Results Through analysis of in-depth interviews of PETE program coordinators, four primary themes
Ben D. Kern, K. Andrew R. Richards, Suzan F. Ayers and Chad M. Killian
they perceive as individual barriers to recruiting? and (3) What strategies do PETE coordinators perceive to be successful in recruiting new students into their programs? Methods The data reported in this study were generated from in-depth interviews with 36 PETE coordinators (24 females and 12 males
Jean Côté, John H. Salmela, Abderrahim Baria and Storm J. Russell
In the last several years there has been an increase in the amount of qualitative research using in-depth interviews and comprehensive content analyses in sport psychology. However, no explicit method has been provided to deal with the large amount of unstructured data. This article provides common guidelines for organizing and interpreting unstructured data. Two main operations are suggested and discussed: first, coding meaningful text segments, or creating tags, and second, regrouping similar text segments, or creating categories. Furthermore, software programs for the microcomputer are presented as a way to facilitate the organization and interpretation of qualitative data.
Ben D. Kern, Kim C. Graber, Amelia Mays Woods and Tom Templin
Physical education teachers have been criticized for not implementing progressive or innovative instruction resulting in enhanced student knowledge and skills for lifetime participation in physical activity. Purpose: To investigate how teachers with varying dispositions toward change perceive socializing agents and teaching context as barriers to or facilitators of making pedagogical change. Methods: Thirty-two teachers completed a survey of personal dispositions toward change and participated in in-depth interviews. Results: Teachers perceived that students’ response to instructional methods and student contact time (days/week), as well as interactions with teaching colleagues and administrators influenced their ability to make pedagogical changes. Teachers with limited student contact time reported scheduling as a barrier to change, whereas daily student contact was a facilitator. Change-disposed teachers were more likely to promote student learning and assume leadership roles. Conclusion: Reform efforts should include consideration of teacher dispositions and student contact time.
Daniel Gould, Susan A. Jackson and Laura M. Finch
This study was designed to better understand the positive and negative aspects of being a national champion athlete, to uncover difficulties encountered in defending a championship title, and to solicit recommendations for achieving and maintaining national champion status. Seventeen U.S. national champion figure skaters who held titles between 1985 and 1990 participated in in-depth interviews. A number of positive and negative experiences were identified. Difficulties encountered in defending a championship were associated with increased expectations and responsibilities, a shift in motivational orientation from chasing to being chased where arousal was increased and interpreted negatively, and athletic injuries and the stress related to those injuries. Recommendations focused on such things as not being afraid to grow and take risks, filtering feedback and advice, not falling into the trap of feeling one has to be perfect, and seeking and utilizing social support.
Ken Hodge, Graham Henry and Wayne Smith
This case study focused on the New Zealand All Blacks rugby team during the period from 2004 to 2011, when Graham Henry (head coach) and Wayne Smith (assistant coach) coached and managed the team. More specifically, this case study examined the motivational climate created by this coaching group that culminated in winning the Rugby World Cup in 2011. In-depth interviews were completed with Henry and Smith in March 2012. A collaborative thematic content analysis revealed eight themes, regarding motivational issues and the motivational climate for the 2004–2011 All Blacks team: (i) critical turning point, (ii) flexible and evolving, (iii) dual-management model, (iv) “Better People Make Better All Blacks,” (v) responsibility, (vi) leadership, (vii) expectation of excellence, and (viii) team cohesion. These findings are discussed in light of autonomy-supportive coaching, emotionally intelligent coaching, and transformational leadership. Finally, practical recommendations are offered for coaches of elite sports teams.
Patricia S. Miller and Gretchen A. Kerr
This study examined the role experimentation of university student athletes using in-depth interviews. The results revealed participants’ role experimentation was limited to three spheres: athletic, academic, and social. Participants’ exploration of and commitment to roles revealed a two-stage model of identity formation. The first stage, Over-Identification with the Athlete Role, revealed a singular focus on athletics that persisted throughout much of the participants’ university careers. The second stage, Deferred Role Experimentation, reflected an increased investment in academic and social roles in the participants’ upper years. Results were consistent with previous findings of an athletic identity among intercollegiate student-athletes (Brewer, Van Raalte, & Linder, 1993), but supported Perna, Zaichkowsky, and Bocknek’s (1996) suggestion that identity foreclosure may have been overgeneralized.
Ken Hodge and Wayne Smith
This case study focused on pressure, stereotype threat, choking, and the coping experiences of the New Zealand All Blacks rugby team during the period from 2004-2011 leading into their success at the 2011 Rugby World Cup (RWC). Employing a narrative approach this case study examined public expectation, pressure, and coach-led coping strategies designed to “avoid the choke” by the All Blacks team. An in-depth interview was completed with one of the All Blacks’ coaches and analyzed via collaborative thematic analysis (Riessman, 2008). In addition multiple secondary data sources (e.g., coach & player autobiographies; media interviews) were analyzed via holistic-content analysis (Lieblich et al., 1998). Collectively these analyses revealed five key themes: public expectation and pressure, learning from 2007 RWC, coping with RWC pressure, decision-making under pressure, and avoiding the choke. Practical recommendations are offered for team sport coaches with respect to coping with pressure and avoiding choking.
Regina Bloot and Jennifer Browne
This paper focuses on reasons why so few females hold head of department positions in physical education in government secondary schools in Western Australia. Despite the almost equitable proportion of females and males teaching the subject, and the absence of Ministry of Education policy constraints on female promotion since 1972, women held only 5 (7%) of the 70 substantive head of department appointments in 1991. In-depth interviews were conducted with 27 female physical education teachers to document their career experiences and aspirations. Analysis revealed that constraints on the promotion of females were based primarily on stereotypic attitudes and expectations regarding gender roles, and comprised systemic, attitudinal, and internalized barriers. It is proposed that social settings from studentship, through teacher education, to the teaching environment could play a crucial role in shaping and nurturing the career decisions and aspirations of female teachers.