in masculine performances and their social implications. Based on ethnographic participatory observations and in-depth interviews, I characterize the use of three main categories of Policing of Masculinity (POM) within mostly adult martial arts groups in Israel as indicators of the construction of
Andrea N. Geurin
not just social media (e.g., Facebook, Twitter), which is only one component of new media. Socha and Eber-Schmid ( 2014 ) defined the term “new media” as a catchall phrase used to describe all Internet-related interactions among technology, images, and sound. Through semistructured in-depth interviews
Laura A. Gale, Ben A. Ives, Paul A. Potrac and Lee J. Nelson
participants mentioned during the interview process ( Kaiser, 2012 ; Purdy, 2014 ). Data Generation Given our focus on the participants’ meaning making, and that the concepts of trust, trustworthiness, and distrust cannot be easily observed ( Lyon, Möllering, & Saunders, 2012 ), in-depth interviews were
Kevin Young, Philip White and William McTeer
This paper examines how participation in physically demanding sport, with its potential and actual injurious outcomes, both challenges and reinforces dominant notions of masculinity. Data from 16 in-depth interviews with former and current Canadian adult male athletes indicate that sport practices privileging forceful notions of masculinity are highly valued, and that serious injury is framed as a masculinizing experience. It is argued that a generally unreflexive approach to past disablement is an extraordinary domain feature of contemporary sport. The risks associated with violent sport appear to go relatively unquestioned by men who have suffered debilitating injury and whose daily lives are marked by physical constraints and pain.
Mari Kristin Sisjord and Elsa Kristiansen
The present study explores Norwegian female and male elite wrestlers’ perceptions of media coverage of wrestling and of themselves as athletes. In-depth interviews were conducted with four female and four male elite wrestlers. Data analysis revealed that the wrestlers experienced media attention as limited and gender stereotyped, with a dominant focus on hegemonic masculinity. In addition, the wrestlers perceived that media coverage distorted their sport performance by focusing on sensational aspects and scandals rather than on actual performances and results. Some of the athletes’ descriptions of representations in the sports media and commercial television illustrated that, in their perception, they were viewed more as media clowns than as serious athletes.
Shelly A. McGrath and Ruth A. Chananie-Hill
Based on participant observation and in-depth interviews with 10 college-level female bodybuilders, this paper focuses on several aspects of female bodybuilding that are underexplored in existing literature, including purposeful gender transgressions, gender attribution, racialized bodies, and the conflation of sex, gender, and sexual preference. We draw on critical feminist theory and the social constructionist perspective to enhance collective understanding of the subversive possibilities emerging from female bodybuilders’ lived experience. Collectively, female bodybuilders’ experiences affect somatic and behavioral gender norms in a wider Western-type industrialized society such as the United States.
Elizabeth D. Gilbert
This qualitative study was an examination of organized sport experiences of girls eight to thirteen years of age. The purpose was to determine, through the perceptions of the girls in this study, the factors which led to more satisfying sport experiences. In-depth interviews were conducted to probe for information concerning the girls’ current and past experiences with sport participation. The interviews addressed issues related to the girls’ initial involvement, such as who or what influenced them to participate in sports. In addition, questions were asked which addressed issues related to the influences which positively and negatively affected the nature and quality of the girls’ sport experiences. By presenting the direct quotes of the girls, the reader is allowed a first-hand examination of the components girls described as positively and negatively influential in their organized sport experiences.
Sharon R. Guthrie
The purpose of this qualitative study was to explore internalized lesbophobia and eating disorder symptomatology among lesbian current and former athletes and the possible link between the two phenomena. In-depth interviews were conducted with 15 physically active adult lesbians who had at least 10 years of athletic experience. Lesbophobia was defined as the internalization of society’s negative attitudes and assumptions regarding lesbianism. Eating disorder symptomatology was defined as attitudes and behaviors associated with eating pathology (e.g., body dissatisfaction, weight preoccupation, fat phobia, frequent dieting, fasting, bingeing/purging, and other weight control measures). Findings suggested a connection between internalized lesbophobia and eating disorder symptomatology, that is, individuals who expressed greater negativity associated with being a lesbian, particularly concerns about being perceived as lesbian, reported more body dissatisfaction, weight preoccupation, fat phobia, and other eating disordered attitudes and behaviors. The social implications of these findings are discussed.
Katherine A. Bond and Joanne Batey
This study explores the relationship between self-cognitions and running behavior in a group of female recreational runners. Consistent with theories of self-esteem and exerciser self-schemata, it aims to identify how running can impact on the self, and how self-cognitions can influence motivation and adherence to running. In-depth interviews were conducted with 16 women of varying age, ability, and running experience who had entered a major women’s 10K race. Inductive data analysis revealed that there was a bi-directional relationship between running involvement and self-cognitions. Running provided experiences which led to enhanced self-esteem, notably through perceived improvements to the physical self, but also through increases in mastery/achievement and physical competence. These changes contributed to the value of running for the women, strengthened their exercise self-schema, and increased the likelihood of adherence to running. However, family responsibilities constrained the women in their ability to run, impacting on the exercise-self relationship outlined.
Ellen Macro, Jennifer Viveiros and Nick Cipriano
This study explores female freestyle wrestlers’ experiences related to identity, body consciousness, (hetero)sexuality, and (conventional) femininity, and also the perceptions of females participating in a traditionally male-dominated sport. Data was collected from questionnaires distributed to 47 high school, university, and club female wrestlers and from in-depth interviews with eight university wrestlers. Based on the findings, the researchers suggest that female wrestlers are comfortable with their body; that public perception concerning their sexuality and femininity is not an issue of concern for them; and that they do not experience gender-role conflict nor engage in the female apologetic. The results are of particular interest because they differ from what other studies have concluded regarding the experiences of women in(traditionally male-dominated sports.