differences among these groups ( Garcia & Da, 2011 ; Johnson & Garcia, 2003 ). Ethnicity and gender were both determined by self-report in the demographics survey. In-depth interviews We completed in-depth interviews at a private location of participants’ choosing, either their home or a room in a local
Catherine E. Tong, Joanie Sims Gould and Heather A. McKay
Seoha Min, Sumin Koo and Jennifer Wilson
Greensboro, qualitative and quantitative approaches were employed to achieve the research purpose. In the first phase, the researchers explored significant design factors for gardening garments through in-depth interviews and defined potentially important design factors to guide the survey. During the second
Tara K. Scanlan, David G. Russell, T. Michelle Magyar and Larry A. Scanlan
The Sport Commitment Model was further tested using the Scanlan Collaborative Interview Method to examine its generalizability to New Zealand’s elite female amateur netball team, the Silver Ferns. Results supported or clarified Sport Commitment Model predictions, revealed avenues for model expansion, and elucidated the functions of perceived competence and enjoyment in the commitment process. A comparison and contrast of the in-depth interview data from the Silver Ferns with previous interview data from a comparable elite team of amateur male athletes allowed assessment of model external validity, tested the generalizability of the underlying mechanisms, and separated gender differences from discrepancies that simply reflected team or idiosyncratic differences.
Fung Kuen Koo
This qualitative study explores how older Hong Kong Chinese Australians perceive aging and to what extent this perception affects their participation in physical activities. The main methods used were in-depth interviews with 22 participants ranging in age from 60 to 91 years. Interviews were translated from Chinese (Cantonese) and transcribed into English. Content analysis was used to find recurring themes from the interview data. The main findings indicate that the perception of aging is to some extent influenced by culture. Some participants defined aging as being measured in years, and others defined it by the state of one’s physical health, appearance, and capacity to continue fulfilling one’s social roles. These perceptions strongly influenced their preferences for and participation in physical activities. Acknowledging the fact that Chinese-speaking people are not culturally homogeneous, this article makes some recommendations to health service providers with regard to the development of appropriate physical activity programs.
The article explores the lived experiences of older women with a high commitment to exercise. The methods of investigation were in-depth interviews with 17 women fitness instructors for the over-50s and the author's observations as a participant in a variety of exercise programs. The subjective experience of embodiment of older women, the ways in which the body is constructed discursively, and the objective processes of aging are explored. The women's narratives are placed in the wider context of consumption, lifestyle, and identity construction. The study analyzes whether older women's commitment to exercise is a reflection of a climate of constraint, in which individuals seek to shape and manage the body lo combat the effects of aging, or is one of empowerment and enablement. More important, the article explores the ways in which the women used fitness programs as a means of constructing intimacy, a sense of community, and satisfaction in interpersonal relations.
The number of older athletes is growing with the aging of populations across the developed world. This article reviews studies from a variety of disciplines that focus specifically on the motives and experiences of older adults competing in physically demanding sports at events such as masters and veterans competitions in Australia or the Senior Olympics in North America. It is shown that the majority of research into this phenomenon has taken a quantitative approach or failed to consider older athletes’ experiences in the context of broader sociocultural discourses. Therefore, using the author’s research into the experiences of older Australian masters athletes as a catalyst, the need for and strength of sociological qualitative research in this area is discussed. The use of qualitative methods, such as in-depth interviews and observations, and interpretive analysis provided alternative ways of making sense of older adults and their relationship with competitive sport to what is typically found in the sport and aging literature.
Melissa E. Hay and Denise M. Connelly
Physical inactivity and chronic back pain are prevalent among older adults; however, there are individuals who persist in exercising despite daily pain. This research explored the meaning of exercise in the lives of older adults with chronic back pain. Hermeneutic phenomenology, valuing everyday experiences and highlighting meaning, was employed. Individual in-depth interviews with 10 adults aged 65 years and older gathered rich descriptions of their experiences. Data collection and analyses were iterative processes. The experience of exercise was inextricably connected with older adults’ chronic back pain. The essence of embodied relief from pain offered by exercise was considered through themes reflecting the restoration of existential coherence—enjoying exercise experiences, social engagement, gratitude, learned latitudes, maintaining mobility, and aging. Understanding that older adults can live in their bodies pain-free for some time with regular physical activity may endorse adherence to exercise participation for maintained or improved well-being.
Maureen R. Weiss, Alan L. Smith and Marc Theeboom
The influence of peer groups on children’s psychosocial development is highlighted in the sport psychology literature in areas such as motivation, self-perceptions, and affect. However, scant research has been devoted to examining children’s and teenagers’ conceptions of friendships within the physical domain. Current and former sport program participants (N = 38) took part in an in-depth interview that concerned their best friend in sports. An inductive content analysis revealed the existence of 12 positive friendship dimensions: companionship, pleasant play/association, self-esteem enhancement, help and guidance, prosocial behavior, intimacy, loyalty, things in common, attractive personal qualities, emotional support, absence of conflicts, and conflict resolution. Four negative friendship dimensions were extracted: conflict, unattractive personal qualities, betrayal, and inaccessible. These conceptions of friendship were both similar and unique to friendship conceptions found in mainstream developmental research. Future research directions include measurement efforts, relationships among important constructs, and intervention techniques in the sport setting.
Emily A. Roper, Douglas J. Molnar and Craig A. Wrisberg
In the sport, physical activity, and aging literature, much attention has been given to the importance of physical activity and sport involvement for the elderly. Most of the literature, however, has focused on the continuity of physical activity among older adults. The purpose of this study was to extend the understanding of older sport participants by conducting a case study of Max Springer, a male, White master runner (88 years old). We assumed that continuity in sport would represent a primary adaptive strategy for coping with the aging process. In addition to two in-depth interviews with Max, the authors interviewed various other “participants” regarding their perceptions of Max as an older runner. From deductive analysis of the interview material, the following themes emerged as figural to Max’s experience as an older runner: tradition of always being physically active, I’m not an athlete, being of senior age, meaning and philosophy of running, and significance of social support.
Rebecca K. Lytle and Gayle E. Hutchinson
The purpose of this study was to describe the experiences and roles adapted physical educators engaged in during consultation interactions. Participants included 4 females and 2 males with experience teaching (range of 3-21 years) in the field of adapted physical education. Data collection included a demographic data sheet, two individual in-depth interviews, interview notes, document analysis, and field observations. Results indicate that participants experienced and made meaning for five distinct roles, including advocate, educator, courier, supporter/helper, and resource coordinator. These findings and future discoveries may influence curriculum and pedagogical approaches for adapted physical education teacher training programs.