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Rodrigo Rodrigues Gomes Costa, Rodrigo Luiz Carregaro and Frederico Ribeiro Neto

recruitment of shoulder muscles 14 were reported, with no significant differences between HP and LP. In clinical practice, the SCI classification has shown differences between sports performance, the speed of wheelchair, and functional independence, although some assessment scales do not demonstrate such

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Camilla Yuri Kawanishi and Márcia Greguol

This study aimed to perform a systematic review of studies that address the influence of physical activity on the quality of life and functional independence of adult individuals with spinal cord injury. The review was performed using data obtained from the MEDLINE, CINAHL, SciELO, LILACS, SPORTDiscus, Web of Science, Academic Search Premier, and PEDro databases using the following keywords: quality of life; functional independence; autonomy; independence; physical activity; activities of daily living; physical exercise; tetraplegia; paraplegia; spinal cord injury; physical disabilities; and wheelchair. Eleven studies met the inclusion criteria. Although there was a lack of consensus among the selected studies, the majority of them presented a strong correlation between physical activity and variables of quality of life and/or functional independence. Thus, physical activity appears to have an important influence on social relationships, functional independence, psychological factors, and physical aspects, which can enhance quality of life and independence in the performance of daily activities.

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Patricia L. Weir

This commentary raises some issues still unresolved in the study of the reach-to-grasp movement, namely the operational definition of the components of the reach-to-grasp movement, the independence of these components, and the equivocal interpretation of the existing literature. Lastly, this commentary addresses issues pertaining to object properties that require both visual and haptic determination.

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Miriam Getz, Yeshayahu Hutzler and Adri Vermeer

The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between motor performance in the aquatic setting as measured by the Aquatic Independence Measure (AIM) to motor performance on land as measured by the Gross Motor Function Measure (GMFM) and the Pediatric Evaluation of Disability Inventory (PEDI). Fourty- nine children with neuro-motor impairments ages 3 to 7 participated in the study. Pearson correlations were applied to determine the relationships between the AIM and the GMFM, PEDI, and Gross Motor Function Classification System (GMFCS). Significant correlations were found between the total AIM and GMFM scores (r = 69, p < .01) and PEDI self-care sub-scale (r = .79, p < .01) as well as the PEDI mobility sub-scale scores (r = .35, p < .05). The water adjustment sub-scale as measured by the AIM showed the strongest relationship to motor performance on land as measured by the GMFM and PEDI in our sample of 49 children.

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Tim McGarry and Ian M. Franks

The ability to inhibit an earlier intended action in a stop-signal task is commonly assessed using the measures of latency and probability. The usual findings from stop-signal trials of lower response probabilities and shorter reaction latencies at reduced stop-signal delays were reported, as described in previous studies in terms of an independent race between stochastic processes (see Logan & Cowan, 1984). In addition, using the less common measure of amplitude, a continuum of reductions in surface EMG onsets was reported. Weakened motor discharges have yet to be explained in terms of a mechanism of inhibitory control. Using computer simulations of neural functioning, the properties of independence and non-independence were examined for their effects on motor pool output in terms of probability, latency, and EMG onsets. The data provided support to question the requirement of independent processes for a theory of inhibitory control.

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Cindy K. Piletic

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Andrew E. Littmann, Masaki Iguchi, Sangeetha Madhavan, Jamie L. Kolarik and Richard K. Shields

Context:

There is conflicting evidence in the literature regarding whether women with anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction (ACLR) demonstrate impaired proprioception. This study examined dynamic-position-sense accuracy and central-nervous-system (CNS) processing time between those with and without long-term ACLR.

Objective:

To compare proprioception of knee movement in women with ACLR and healthy controls.

Design:

Cross-sectional.

Setting:

Human neuromuscular performance laboratory.

Participants:

11 women (age 22.64 ± 2.4 y) with ACLR (1.6–5.8 y postsurgery) and 20 women without (age 24.05 ± 1.4 y).

Interventions:

The authors evaluated subjects using 3 methods to assess position sense. During knee flexion at pseudorandomly selected speeds (40°, 60°, 80°, 90°, and 100°/s), subjects indicated with their index finger when their knee reached a predetermined target angle (50°). Accuracy was calculated as an error score. CNS processing time was computed using the time to detect movement and the minimum time of angle indication. Passive and active joint-position sense were also determined at a slow velocity (3°/s) from various knee-joint starting angles.

Main Outcome Measurements:

Absolute and constant error of target angle, indication accuracy, CNS processing time, and perceived function.

Results:

Both subject groups showed similar levels of error during dynamic-position-sense testing, despite continued differences in perceived knee function. Estimated CNS processing time was 260 ms for both groups. Joint-position sense during slow active or passive movement did not differ between cohorts.

Conclusions:

Control and ACLR subjects demonstrated similar dynamic, passive, and active joint-position-sense error and CNS processing speed even though ACLR subjects reported greater impairment of function. The impairment of proprioception is independent of post-ACLR perception of function.

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Keith R. Johnston, Donna L. Goodwin and Jennifer Leo

Dignity, as an essential quality of being human, has been overlooked in exercise contexts. The aim of this interpretative phenomenological study was to understand the meaning of dignity and its importance to exercise participation. The experiences of 21 adults (11 women and 10 men) from 19 to 65 yr of age who experience disability, who attended a specialized community exercise facility, were gathered using the methods of focus-group and one-on-one interviews, visual images, and field notes. The thematic analysis revealed 4 themes: the comfort of feeling welcome, perceptions of otherness, negotiating public spaces, and lost autonomy. Dignity was subjectively understood and nurtured through the respect of others. Indignities occurred when enacted social and cultural norms brought dignity to consciousness through humiliation or removal of autonomy. The specialized exercise environment promoted self-worth and positive self-beliefs through shared life experiences and a norm of respect.

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David M. Werner and Joaquin A. Barrios

-square test of independence was conducted. Post hoc testing of a significant chi-square was performed using assessment of standardized residuals. If standardized residuals were ±1.96 from the expected frequency (determined from the break frequency of the control participants), it represented the major cells

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Tomoko Aoki, Hayato Tsuda and Hiroshi Kinoshita

independence in activities of daily living as well as reduces the quality of life. Hackel, Wolfe, Bang, and Canfield ( 1992 ) reported that a broad range of hand functions required for activities of daily living, as measured by the Jebsen test, decreased with age. There is also age-related declines in