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Jacquelyn Cuneen and M. Joy Sidwell

Internships permit sport management students to link classroom learning to the professional environment. Since internships provide students with opportunities to learn on-the-job and test their skills in the marketplace, the experiences should be uniformly beneficial to all students regardless of gender. This study was conducted to describe internship work conditions (i.e., opportunities to perform in essential marketplace functions) for male and female sport management interns assigned to ‘Big Four’ professional sport organizations. Participants were 74 sport industry professionals who supervised a total of 103 interns over a one-year period. A X2 Test of Independence found that male and female interns working in professional sport had comparable opportunities to perform and learn on the job. Differences in opportunity, hiring practices, and on-the-job benefits emerged primarily as a function of job specialization (e.g., operations, marketing, venue management), league/association, or gender of the internship supervisor rather than gender of the interns.

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Jeffrey W. Kassing

sanction but instead represented an intentional political statement the club sought to make. Earlier that day Catalonia held, according to the Spanish government, an unauthorized independence referendum vote. In response, Spanish Prime Minister Mariano Rajoy deployed the Spanish national police to quell

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Kristi Sweeney and Megan Schramm-Possinger

Understanding factors that influence live game-day attendance has garnered significant attention from both researchers and practitioners in the sport industry. Despite the National Football League’s unprecedented annual revenues, league attendance remains down, spurring large-scale investment into the game-day experience (Florio, 2008). In this case, students will perform various statistical analyses (i.e., computing chi-square tests of independence, t tests, effect sizes [Cohen’s d], and confidence intervals) to determine which factors most strongly influence fan attendance at Jacksonville Jaguars home games. Specifically, this case investigates the degree to which stadium upgrades motivate fans to attend and explores the extent to which fans support the use of public funds for stadium upgrades. Answering these questions will further equip future sport managers to make data-driven decisions regarding the utility of strategies—such as stadium projects—to enhance the game-day experience. Furthermore, students can use the knowledge gained from the case to critically analyze public investment in sport stadia as well as the ways in which consumers’ preferences are either independent of or depend on categorical variables such as gender. The case is intended for use in research methods courses and is also applicable to sport marketing, sport facility, and sport finance courses.

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Kyungyeol (Anthony) Kim, Kevin K. Byon and Paul M. Pedersen

of self-construal. Self-construal refers to how individuals define and make meaning of the self in relation to others (i.e., independence vs. interdependence; Markus & Kitayama, 1991 ). Consider the opening narrative. The extent to which the witness is influenced by other spectators’ fighting may

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Lynley Ingerson and Michael L. Naraine

memberships because what they have on offer satisfies members’ social and identity needs. As far as determining rewards for this role, she knows money is not the only motivator. Intrinsic motivators such as fulfilment of social needs, independence, and pride for selling must be considered. The Membership and

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Gashaw Abeza, Mads Quist Boesen, Norm O’Reilly and Jessica R. Braunstein-Minkove

board was compiled in the following report. Contextual Background: Qatar, FIFA, and Qatar Airways Qatar: Host of the 2022 World Cup Qatar is a relatively new state that gained its independence from Britain in 1971 and has a population of less than three million ( Chadwick & Widdop, 2017 ). The country

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Megan B. Shreffler, Adam R. Cocco and Jacob R. Shreffler

other four courses, the professor who taught the online version was different than the professor who taught the traditional version. This is a violation of the assumption of independence and, therefore, future studies should strive to provide more controls for this in true experimental settings. Future

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Leeann M. Lower-Hoppe, Liz A. Wanless, Sarah M. Aldridge and Daniel W. Jones

is associated with benefits, including skill development (e.g., goal setting and attainment) and enhanced independence and self-determination ( Chan, Graham-Day, Ressa, Peters, & Konrad, 2014 ; Uphold & Hudson, 2012 ). Next, students applied to work for a specific event committee; sales, marketing

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Michael A. Odio, Patty Raube Keller and Dana Drew Shaw

’s usually best to bring in outside experts who are experienced and trained and have the independence to communicate this information in a meaningful way. The policy should be independently reviewed as well. I’m a big believer in, maybe because I’m a lawyer, of attorney review of of all the policies on a

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Christopher R. Barnhill, W. Andrew Czekanski and Adam G. Pfleegor

decision process. This falls in line with Keup’s ( 2007 ) explanation of “personal ambition” (p. 16), as students often make academic decisions from their own ideas to create independence from their family. These results stipulate that the pressure students feel for achievement from parents does not