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Camilla Yuri Kawanishi and Márcia Greguol

This study aimed to perform a systematic review of studies that address the influence of physical activity on the quality of life and functional independence of adult individuals with spinal cord injury. The review was performed using data obtained from the MEDLINE, CINAHL, SciELO, LILACS, SPORTDiscus, Web of Science, Academic Search Premier, and PEDro databases using the following keywords: quality of life; functional independence; autonomy; independence; physical activity; activities of daily living; physical exercise; tetraplegia; paraplegia; spinal cord injury; physical disabilities; and wheelchair. Eleven studies met the inclusion criteria. Although there was a lack of consensus among the selected studies, the majority of them presented a strong correlation between physical activity and variables of quality of life and/or functional independence. Thus, physical activity appears to have an important influence on social relationships, functional independence, psychological factors, and physical aspects, which can enhance quality of life and independence in the performance of daily activities.

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Miriam Getz, Yeshayahu Hutzler and Adri Vermeer

The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between motor performance in the aquatic setting as measured by the Aquatic Independence Measure (AIM) to motor performance on land as measured by the Gross Motor Function Measure (GMFM) and the Pediatric Evaluation of Disability Inventory (PEDI). Fourty- nine children with neuro-motor impairments ages 3 to 7 participated in the study. Pearson correlations were applied to determine the relationships between the AIM and the GMFM, PEDI, and Gross Motor Function Classification System (GMFCS). Significant correlations were found between the total AIM and GMFM scores (r = 69, p < .01) and PEDI self-care sub-scale (r = .79, p < .01) as well as the PEDI mobility sub-scale scores (r = .35, p < .05). The water adjustment sub-scale as measured by the AIM showed the strongest relationship to motor performance on land as measured by the GMFM and PEDI in our sample of 49 children.

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Cindy K. Piletic

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Keith R. Johnston, Donna L. Goodwin and Jennifer Leo

Dignity, as an essential quality of being human, has been overlooked in exercise contexts. The aim of this interpretative phenomenological study was to understand the meaning of dignity and its importance to exercise participation. The experiences of 21 adults (11 women and 10 men) from 19 to 65 yr of age who experience disability, who attended a specialized community exercise facility, were gathered using the methods of focus-group and one-on-one interviews, visual images, and field notes. The thematic analysis revealed 4 themes: the comfort of feeling welcome, perceptions of otherness, negotiating public spaces, and lost autonomy. Dignity was subjectively understood and nurtured through the respect of others. Indignities occurred when enacted social and cultural norms brought dignity to consciousness through humiliation or removal of autonomy. The specialized exercise environment promoted self-worth and positive self-beliefs through shared life experiences and a norm of respect.

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Lorenzo Lolli, Alan M. Batterham, Gregory MacMillan, Warren Gregson and Greg Atkinson

supplemented by conventional Pearson correlation coefficients, despite there being fewer than 30 participants in each sample. This mismatch between sample size and the appropriate statistical model violates the assumption of independence of observations and leads to both biased and overly precise statistical

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Stephen Crowcroft, Katie Slattery, Erin McCleave and Aaron J. Coutts

( P  < .05) and the quasi-likelihood under independence model criterion decreased. 21 The predictive probability value of the mean response was calculated automatically in SPSS from the strongest models to assess the probability of both improvements and decrements in performance from the athlete

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Pedro Figueiredo, George P. Nassis and João Brito

or difference (0.2 × between-subject SD). Within-subject correlation coefficients were used to analyze the relationships between sIgA and load parameters, accounting for the lack of independence among the repeated measurements by removing the variation between subjects. 8 The magnitude of the

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Mathew Hillier, Louise Sutton, Lewis James, Dara Mojtahedi, Nicola Keay and Karen Hind

.4%) were significantly overrepresented for the “ I don’t use anymore ” response. Amateur athletes were also significantly overrepresented (39.8%) for the “ never use ” response. A chi-square test of independence found a significant difference in the use of gradual dieting between the different weight

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Hanan A. Alfawaz, Soundararajan Krishnaswamy, Latifah Al-Faifi, Halima Ali Bin Atta, Mohammad Al-Shayaa, Saad A. Alghanim and Nasser M. Al-Daghri

, Saudi Arabia. Data Analysis Data analyses were done using SPSS 22.0 (SPSS Inc., Chicago, IL). Data were expressed as frequencies (%). The Pearson chi-square test of independence was used to determine relationships between use of dietary supplements and demographic variables such as age, income, BMI

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Dan Weaving, Clive Beggs, Nicholas Dalton-Barron, Ben Jones and Grant Abt

, 11 , 19 , 20 other variables might change in dissimilar ways, demonstrating a degree of independence. For example, in professional rugby league, Lovell et al 21 reported that the relationship between the session rating of perceived exertion and total distance was r  = .80 during conditioning