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Ilaria Masci, Giuseppe Vannozzi, Nancy Getchell and Aurelio Cappozzo

Assessing movement skills is a fundamental issue in motor development. Current process-oriented assessments, such as developmental sequences, are based on subjective judgments; if paired with quantitative assessments, a better understanding of movement performance and developmental change could be obtained. Our purpose was to examine the use of inertial sensors to evaluate developmental differences in hopping over distance. Forty children executed the task wearing the inertial sensor and relevant time durations and 3D accelerations were obtained. Subjects were also categorized in different developmental levels according to the hopping developmental sequence. Results indicated that some time and kinematic parameters changed with some developmental levels, possibly as a function of anthropometry and previous motor experience. We concluded that, since inertial sensors were suitable in describing hopping performance and sensitive to developmental changes, this technology is promising as an in-field and user-independent motor development assessment tool.

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Barry S. Mason, James M. Rhodes and Victoria L. Goosey-Tolfrey

The purpose of the current study was to determine the validity and reliability of an inertial sensor for assessing speed specific to athletes competing in the wheelchair court sports (basketball, rugby, and tennis). A wireless inertial sensor was attached to the axle of a sports wheelchair. Over two separate sessions, the sensor was tested across a range of treadmill speeds reflective of the court sports (1.0 to 6.0 m/s). At each test speed, ten 10-second trials were recorded and were compared with the treadmill (criterion). A further session explored the dynamic validity and reliability of the sensor during a sprinting task on a wheelchair ergometer compared with high-speed video (criterion). During session one, the sensor marginally overestimated speed, whereas during session two these speeds were underestimated slightly. However, systematic bias and absolute random errors never exceeded 0.058 m/s and 0.086 m/s, respectively, across both sessions. The sensor was also shown to be a reliable device with coefficients of variation (% CV) never exceeding 0.9 at any speed. During maximal sprinting, the sensor also provided a valid representation of the peak speeds reached (1.6% CV). Slight random errors in timing led to larger random errors in the detection of deceleration values. The results of this investigation have demonstrated that an inertial sensor developed for sports wheelchair applications provided a valid and reliable assessment of the speeds typically experienced by wheelchair athletes. As such, this device will be a valuable monitoring tool for assessing aspects of linear wheelchair performance.

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Lindsey Tulipani, Mark G. Boocock, Karen V. Lomond, Mahmoud El-Gohary, Duncan A. Reid and Sharon M. Henry

new to the field of PT is inertial sensors, which are emerging as a useful tool for monitoring multiple segments in all planes of motion simultaneously. 6 Initial investigations into inertial sensor accuracy for PT applications compared inertial sensor data with data collected from motion analysis

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Reed D. Gurchiek, Hasthika S. Rupasinghe Arachchige Don, Lasanthi C. R. Pelawa Watagoda, Ryan S. McGinnis, Herman van Werkhoven, Alan R. Needle, Jeffrey M. McBride and Alan T. Arnholt

.1111/sms.12490 25996964 2. Setuain I , Lecumberri P , Ahtiainen JP , Mero AA , Häkkinen K , Izquierdo M . Sprint mechanics evaluation using inertial sensor-based technology: a laboratory validation study . Scand J Med Sci Sports . 2018 ; 28 ( 2 ): 463 – 472 . PubMed ID: 28685862 doi

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Benita Olivier, Samantha-Lynn Quinn, Natalie Benjamin, Andrew Craig Green, Jessica Chiu and Weijie Wang

and excursion were captured by the Xsens inertial sensor motion analysis system (MVN Link Biomech system; Xsens Technologies B.V., Enschede, The Netherlands), which consists of 17 motion trackers measuring movement at a rate of 240 Hz. The sensors were attached to the participant at the standardized

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Nicola Marotta, Andrea Demeco, Gerardo de Scorpio, Angelo Indino, Teresa Iona and Antonio Ammendolia

subject’s dominant leg. We followed the recommendation of The European project Surface EMG for noninvasive assessment of muscles for electrode placement. An inertial sensor (IS; G sensor; BTS Bioengineering Corp) recorded the timing of the drop fall from the platform to ground contact. The combined data

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Jonathan S. Akins, Nicholas R. Heebner, Mita Lovalekar and Timothy C. Sell

Ankle ligament sprains are the most common injury in soccer. The high rate of these injuries demonstrates a need for novel data collection methodologies. Therefore, soccer shoes and shin guards were instrumented with inertial sensors to measure ankle joint kinematics in the field. The purpose of this study was to assess test-retest reliability and concurrent criterion validity of a kinematic assessment using the instrumented soccer equipment. Twelve soccer athletes performed athletic maneuvers in the laboratory and field during 2 sessions. In the laboratory, ankle joint kinematics were simultaneously measured with the instrumented equipment and a conventional motion analysis system. Reliability was assessed using ICC and validity was assessed using correlation coefficients and RMSE. While our design criteria of good test-retest reliability was not supported (ICC > .80), sagittal plane ICCs were mostly fair to good and similar to motion analysis results; and sagittal plane data were valid (r = .90−.98; RMSE < 5°). Frontal and transverse plane data were not valid (r < .562; RMSE > 3°). Our results indicate that the instrumented soccer equipment can be used to measure sagittal plane ankle joint kinematics. Biomechanical studies support the utility of sagittal plane measures for lower extremity injury prevention.

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Oren Tirosh, Guy Orland, Alon Eliakim, Dan Nemet and Nili Steinberg

This study aimed to identify differences in ground impact shock attenuation between overweight and healthy-weight children during running. Twenty overweight children aged 8.4 (1.1) years and 12 healthy-weight children aged 10.7 (1.3) years ran on a treadmill (120% of baseline speed) while wearing 2 inertial sensors located on their distal tibia and lower back (L3). Peak acceleration attenuation coefficient at foot contact and transfer function of the acceleration were calculated. Peak positive acceleration values were not significantly different between the overweight children and healthy-weight children (3.98 [1.17] g and 3.71 [0.84] g, respectively, P = .49). Children with healthy weight demonstrated significant greater attenuation as evident by greater peak acceleration attenuation coefficient (35.4 [19.3] and 11.9 [27.3], respectively, P < .05) and lower transfer function of the acceleration values (−3.8 [1.9] and −1.2 [1.5], respectively, P < .05). Despite the nonsignificant differences between groups in tibia acceleration at foot–ground impact that was found in the current study, the shock absorption of overweight children was reduced compared with their healthy-weight counterparts.

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David R. Howell, Jessie R. Oldham, Melissa DiFabio, Srikant Vallabhajosula, Eric E. Hall, Caroline J. Ketcham, William P. Meehan III and Thomas A. Buckley

Gait impairments have been documented following sport-related concussion. Whether preexisting gait pattern differences exist among athletes who participate in different sport classifications, however, remains unclear. Dual-task gait examinations probe the simultaneous performance of everyday tasks (ie, walking and thinking), and can quantify gait performance using inertial sensors. The purpose of this study was to compare the single-task and dual-task gait performance of collision/contact and noncontact athletes. A group of collegiate athletes (n = 265) were tested before their season at 3 institutions (mean age= 19.1 ± 1.1 years). All participants stood still (single-task standing) and walked while simultaneously completing a cognitive test (dual-task gait), and completed walking trials without the cognitive test (single-task gait). Spatial-temporal gait parameters were compared between collision/contact and noncontact athletes using MANCOVAs; cognitive task performance was compared using ANCOVAs. No significant single-task or dual-task gait differences were found between collision/contact and noncontact athletes. Noncontact athletes demonstrated higher cognitive task accuracy during single-task standing (P = .001) and dual-task gait conditions (P = .02) than collision/contact athletes. These data demonstrate the utility of a dual-task gait assessment outside of a laboratory and suggest that preinjury cognitive task performance during dual-tasks may differ between athletes of different sport classifications.

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Melissa M.B. Morrow, Bethany Lowndes, Emma Fortune, Kenton R. Kaufman and M. Susan Hallbeck

( suppl 1 ): 9 – 13 . PubMed doi: 10.1007/s12306-013-0253-4 23595608 10. Tranquilli C , Bernetti A , Picerno P . Ambulatory joint mobility and muscle strength assessment during rehabilitation using a single wearable inertial sensor . Med Sport . 2013 ; 66 ( 4 ): 583 – 597 . 11. Keyserling